Aminergic systems, orchestrated by hypocretin/dynorphin neurons, mediate complementary aspects of behavioral state and body homeostasis control, such as maintenance of waking in the context of environmental challenges and stress (histamine), satiety, behavioral suppression and sensory gating (serotonin), primary reward and motor activity (dopamine), arousal, postural muscle tone, and sympathetic outflow (noradrenaline, acetylcholine). Synchronization of biogenic amine and amino acid signaling according to environmental, nutritional and circadian influences by the hypocretin system provides a global mechanism controlling metabolic and electrical state of the whole brain.

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