Appetitive Higharousal States

The above discussion has focused on the potential role of HCRT in modulating behavioral and physiological processes under aversive and challenging situations (e.g.

Figure 6. Effects of the CRF antagonist, alpha helical CRFi2.4i, pretreatment on HCRT-induced waking. Shown are the effects of vehicle pretreatment followed by a vehicle infusion (V + V), vehicle pretreatment followed by a 0.7 nmol HCRT infusion (V + 0.7), 1.5 nmol alpha helical CRF pretreatment followed by a 0.7 nmol HCRT infusion (1.5 + 0.7), and 15.0 nmol alpha helical CRF pretreatment followed by a 0.7 nmol HCRT infusion (15.0 + 0.7). HCRT-1, preceded by vehicle pretreatment, significantly increased waking relative to the vehicle/vehicle condition. In contrast, pretreatment with alpha helical CRF, dose-dependently attenuated HCRT induced waking. *P<0.05; **P<0.01 significantly different from (V + V); +P < 0.01 significantly different from (V + 0.7).

Figure 6. Effects of the CRF antagonist, alpha helical CRFi2.4i, pretreatment on HCRT-induced waking. Shown are the effects of vehicle pretreatment followed by a vehicle infusion (V + V), vehicle pretreatment followed by a 0.7 nmol HCRT infusion (V + 0.7), 1.5 nmol alpha helical CRF pretreatment followed by a 0.7 nmol HCRT infusion (1.5 + 0.7), and 15.0 nmol alpha helical CRF pretreatment followed by a 0.7 nmol HCRT infusion (15.0 + 0.7). HCRT-1, preceded by vehicle pretreatment, significantly increased waking relative to the vehicle/vehicle condition. In contrast, pretreatment with alpha helical CRF, dose-dependently attenuated HCRT induced waking. *P<0.05; **P<0.01 significantly different from (V + V); +P < 0.01 significantly different from (V + 0.7).

stress). However, it is important to note that elevated arousal levels occur under appetitive conditions and substantial evidence indicates an activation of the prototypical stress systems (hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as peripheral and central catecholaminergic systems) under both aversive and appetitive conditions.66 This suggests the working hypothesis that at least a subset of the physiological indices of stress may be independent of affective valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant) and more closely aligned with arousal level, motivational state, and/or level of activity. Thus, HCRT may not only serve a critical function in behavior and physiology in stress, but also under high arousal, appetitive conditions. In this context, it is important to note that HCRT modulates appetitive behavior (e.g. feeding), and that LH has long been implicated in appetitive processes.9,34 It remains for future work to delineate the degree to which the actions of HCRT are common to both aversive and appetitive high-arousal conditions.

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