Online Hypnosis Training Course

Black Ops Hypnosis 2

Cameron Crawford is the name of the hypnosis master who developed a full unique hypnosis course called Black Ops Hypnosis 2, also known as underground hypnosis or covert hypnosis. He worked closely with a guy who he only discloses as the Professor for two years to develop the most controversial and effective secrets of mind control. He is the only protg of the Professor and nowadays known to be among the most powerful experts of mind control in the entire world. The actual product is basically a course on various techniques of hypnosis. It comes in a series of training audio tracks which explain the mind control and hypnosis techniques in extreme details. It actually a first of its kind to hit the public market and the reviews and testimonials that are rolling back in are very positive. That can only be as a result of how effective and powerful the techniques are. There are 8 featured tracks to describe the various techniques of Dark Side Hypnosis. This course is basically for anyone with a need to get a deeper understanding of how the human brain functions on a social level. Its only intended for good use and by no means should it be used negatively. Read more here...

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What Are The Clients Beliefs And Perceptions About Hypnosis

The transition between evaluating the client (phase I) and educating the client (phase II) occurs as the clinician begins to determine the client's understanding of hypnosis. Research in the area of positive expectancies has taught us that the responsiveness of a client to any treatment will be affected by their expectations. Therefore, the preparation of our clients for hypnosis is a process of educating them and building positive expectations (Coe, 1993). Kirsch has interpreted the results of several of his studies as suggesting that, with sufficiently strong expectation, anyone is hypnotizable (Rhue, Lynn & Kirsch, 1993, p. 89). This parallels Hilgard's (1968) observation that laboratory studies of hypnotic ability and susceptibility are often unable to mirror the demands of the clinical setting where the client's expectations and motivation may render the results on the tests of hypnotizability less important. An educational discussion about hypnosis prefaces any induction...

The Nature Of Hypnosis

The nature of hypnosis has been much debated in the literature (Orne, 1959 Kihlstrom, 1985 Lynn & Rhue, 1991). Nevertheless, there is reasonable consensus about some of its defining properties. Although distortions typically occur, hypnosis can be said to occur when one person (the subject) experiences alterations in perception, memory, or mood in response to suggestions given by another person (the hypnotist). Although distortions typically occur, hypnosis is essentially an experiential phenomenon where the hypnotist typically guides the subject to create a favorable situation for the display of his or her special capacities and skills. Substantial reliance has to be placed therefore on the subject's self-report as to the nature of his or her experience. If a subject is motivated to fake hypnosis (i.e. to report an experience that he or she is not having), then it is possible to do so. In such a case, subjects typically base their performance on the information that has been given...

Current Opinion On The Relationship Between Hypnosis And Depression

A review of the literature indicates that the consensus of opinion is not, in fact, strongly opposed to the use of hypnosis in the treatment of depression. Commentators vary, however, in their readiness to accept the use of hypnosis unconditionally . Yapko (1992) advocates a broad-based acceptance 'As for the specific contraindications to the use of hypnosis, it may seem a bold statement to make, but I am aware of no such contraindications' (p. 186). Clarke & International Handbook of Clinical Hypnosis. Edited by G. D. Burrows, R. O. Stanley and P. B. Bloom 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Jackson (1983) adopt a similar viewpoint, suggesting that the notion that hypnosis has no place in the treatment of depression is a 'bit of clinical folklore'. Miller (1984) produces a chapter on the application of hypnosis to the treatment of depression without questioning the appropriateness of this approach. Crasilneck & Hall (1985) advocate a more conservative view, listing some...

Severely Depressed Individuals Lack The Capacity To Utilize Hypnosis

Pettinati, Kogan, Evans et al. (1990) compared hypnotizability on two measures, the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) and the Stanford Hypnotic Suggestibility Scale C (SHSS C) for five clinical and one normal college populations. The group with a diagnosis of major depression scored higher on the SHSS C than the normal population and only marginally lower, although higher than the anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia groups, on the HIP.

Hypnosis May Precipitate Further Deterioration

This notion exists in a number of forms. Several commentators have suggested (e.g., Miller, 1979 Terman, 1980) that by focusing hypnotically on emotionally laden aspects of the individual's life, further disintegration of the ego may occur. Hypnosis has also been described as precipitating a more rapid development of 'transference' distortions which may result in the patient being over-reactive to specific therapy issues (Burrows, 1980). These issues appear to be related to the psychodynamic model of therapy which defines them rather than to hypnosis as a technique and there is no objective evidence to suggest that these are significant issues when the therapist is an experienced clinician.

Combining Hypnosis With Current Therapeutic Approaches To Depression

As summarized earlier, numerous case studies have suggested ways in which hypnotic methods can be utilized in psychodynamic therapy. Yapko (1989, 1992, 1994) has described a variety of indirect and metaphoric techniques in a cognitive-behavioural framework. However, as Stanley (1994) has commented, he has made little use of the wide variety of well-documented, more directive cognitive-behavioural techniques. The Cognitive Dissociative Model of nonendogenous unipolar depression (Alladin, 1994) attempts to utilize hypnosis and cognitive-behavioural techniques in a multifactorial treatment approach. The way in which hypnotic techniques may augment a cognitive-behavioural management programme for depression represents a challenge for future research.

Principles Of Psychotherapy With Hypnosis

From the hypnosis as they care to, and feel they are in charge of the self-hypnosis experience. They should learn to use it on their own as a self-hypnosis exercise as well as with the therapist. Such procedures help patients to deal with traumatic memories with a greater sense of control and mastery.

Traditional Roles Of Hypnosis With Dissociative Disorders

Until fairly recently, hypnosis had been recommended rather unequivocally for use in the treatment of the dissociative disorders. The clear parallel between well-known hypnotic phenomena and the naturalistically-occurring phenomenology of the dissociative disorders (see Braun, 1983 Bliss, 1986) the argument that many manifestations of the dissociative disorders were the result of the unwitting abuse of autohypnosis (Breuer & Freud, 1955 Bliss, 1986) and the clear demonstrations that hypnotic interventions were therapeutically useful in work with amnesia and with dissociative identity disorder (from its first successful treatment Despine, 1840 numerous reports of the success of hypnosis in combat-related amnestic syndromes and use of hypnosis with the first series of successfully treated dissociative identity disorder patients followed over time in the modern era Kluft, 1982, 1984, 1986a, 1993a ) were among the arguments advanced in favor of utilizing hypnosis with this group of...

Observations On The Use Of Hypnosis With Dissociative Disorders Today

The challenge to contemporary practice is to preserve what is useful and solid, to refuse to be panicked into throwing the baby out with the bathwater, and to utilize all available information in a constructive effort to be of help to the dissociative patient. Not only has hypnosis been instrumental in the recovery of many dissociative patients a strong argument can be made that since hypnosis is an inevitable aspect of their treatment, it is best that the treater be prepared to use it therapeutically. Although dissociative patients in general have been thought to be highly hypnotizable, formal testing has established this only for dissociative identity disorder patients (Bliss, 1984 Frischholz, Lipman, Braun & Sachs, 1992). With any highly hypnotizable group of patients, one would be naive indeed to assume that the only hypnosis that takes place is the heterohypnosis that occurs in therapy. Keen observers have long observed their proclivity for spontaneous trance and autohypnosis...

Why Is Hypnosis Useful In The Treatment Of Sexual Dysfunction

Hypnosis, when added to traditional approaches to the treatment of sexual dysfunction in both males and females, facilitates treatment and extends treatment options. Hammond (1990) noted the advantages in using hypnosis as an adjunct to traditional forms of sexual dysfunction, particularly in the way hypnotically-based techniques may assist in working with the single individual if the patient's partner is unwilling, unavailable or non-existent. Hypnosis provides direct and indirect ways of effecting changes in negative thought processes at both the superficial and deeper schematic level. As Araoz (1982) noted, it is often the negative thinking of patients with sexual disorders that perpetuates difficulties. The involvement of thought, image and symbolism in sexual interest, arousal and behavior cannot be overemphasized. Changing the information, associations, symbols and images that contribute to dysfunction is a primary goal of therapy. Hypnosis provides a powerful means of...

Hypnosis In Enhancing Anxiety Reduction

While relaxation is not a requirement of hypnosis, the use of hypnosis can facilitate relaxation and reduction in the anxiety which may directly or indirectly impair sexual functioning. Hypnotically cued relaxation may be utilized at the time of sexual intimacy, during self-stimulation or during the sensate focus or pleasuring technique, a process of in vivo desensitization. This use of cued relaxation may also overcome the anxiety accompanying sexual guilt. Alternatively hypnotically based relaxation may be added to systematic desensi-tization in imagination, if in vivo work is not practical, for example when the patient does not currently have a partner. In fact Wolpe (1958), in his original account of systematic desensitization in imagination, utilized hypnotically based relaxation techniques, without further discussing the role hypnosis played.

Hypnosis And Chronic Pain A Brief Review

The Scottish physician, Esdaile (1850 1957) may have been the first to document the use of hypnosis to control pain. Just prior to the development of chemical anesthesia, Esdaile successfully used hypnosis widely in India as the only form of anesthesia for amputations, tumor removals and complex surgical procedures. Overlooked in Esdaile's reports was the fact that most of his patients survived surgery a rare event in those days because of hemorrhage, shock, and postsurgical infection. In addition to controlling surgical and post-operative pain, hypnosis may have had autonomic and or immunological effects that minimized the usual complications of surgical procedures. Clinical reports document that hypnosis has been used to reduce chronic pain (Sacerdote, 1970), to reduce the pain and severity of debridement procedures in burn patients (Ewin, 1976 see also chapter 19 in this volume), and to assist in the management of pain in the terminally ill (cancer) patient (Domangue & Margolis,...

Selfhypnosis As The Goal

In keeping with modern approaches to patient care and autonomy patients are encouraged to become more involved in their own management, both by selecting their own fantasies and maintaining a two-way communication with a hypnotic practitioner. There is a trend towards natural methods, and the authoritative hypnotist is giving way to a more permissive guide, who takes the hypnotic subject through the new territory of their altered state of awareness until they are prepared to take their own initiative. The modern approach to hypnotic pain control is more individualized, the clinician attending to the special needs of the patient and preparing them for what is to come and enhancing the patient's own capacity to cope. The recent introduction of so-called indirect approaches to hypnosis has introduced more naturalistic elements to hypnotic practice and has led to claims that resistance in hypnosis can be overcome. Studies have shown that subjects highly susceptible to hypnosis are likely...

Clinical Hypnotherapy References

The creative process in hypnotherapy. In M. L. Fass & D. Brown (Eds), Creative Mastery in Hypnosis and Hypnoanalysis A Festschrift for Erika Fromm. Hills-dale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum. Bloom, P. B. (1991). Some general considerations about Ericksonian hypnotherapy. Am. J. Clin. Hypn, 33, 221-224. Bloom, P. B. (1993). Training issues in hypnosis. In J. W. Rhue, S.J. Lynn & I. Kirsch (Eds), Handbook of Clinical Hypnosis (pp. 673-690). Washington, DC American Psychological Association. Bloom, P. B. (1994b). Clinical guidelines in using hypnosis in uncovering memories of sexual abuse A master class commentary. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Hypn., 42(3), 173-198. Bloom, P. B. (1995a). Finding one's voice The art and process of becoming a therapist. In M. Kleinhauz, B. Peter, S. Livnay, V Delano, K. Fuchs & A. Iost-Peter (Eds), Jerusalem lectures on hypnosis and hypnotherapy. The Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Hypnosis and the Joint Conference Ericksonian...

Suitability Of Hypnosis For The Problem

Hypnosis is applicable in almost every area of medicine, dentistry, and psychotherapy either as a primary treatment choice or as one that is used adjunctively. The clinician's familiarity with treating the presenting problem nonhypnotically is preeminent. Knowledge of hypnosis is like the buttress of the central structure one's specialty field. The clinician must stay within his or her area of expertise when utilizing hypnosis. Moreover, it is not so much whether or not to apply a hypnotic procedure that the clinician will ponder, but rather the responsiveness of a client to such a procedure that will be a decisive factor in whether to use hypnosis or not. This leads to the inquiry about hypnotizability of a client that is discussed under phase III of patient preparation. Since most people can be considered as candidates for hypnosis, it may be that judicious timing of the introduction of hypnosis is a factor in outcome. Timing of an hypnotic intervention, as its own variable, has...

Controversies Surrounding The Use Of Hypnosis With The Dissociative Disorders

Many controversies currently surround the use of hypnosis with the dissociative disorders. Although they constitute an area of considerable interest, limitations of space preclude their extensive discussion here. The interested reader is referred to more thorough explorations elsewhere (Kluft, 1995b,c, 1997a). Arguments for the efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of the dissociative disorders have been countered by concerns that hypnosis has the capacity to play a role in the formation of pseudomemories or confabulations, that the recovery of memories of childhood traumatisations may not be possible, and that hypnosis may play a role in the iatrogenesis or worsening of dissociative identity disorder. Furthermore, it has been argued that trauma may not be at the root of many of these disorders, so that hypnotic searching for antecedents may generate confabulations with far-reaching consequences. At this moment in time, it is clear to those who are not dominated by ideological...

Current Status Of Clinical Hypnosis With Personality And Psychotic Disorders

The majority of the experimental research studies and clinical reports to date supports the conclusion that psychotic and personality disorder patients have hypnotic capacity and can utilize that capacity productively and safely. As with all patient populations, there will be some individual patients who will decline to work with hypnosis. Aside from these self-selected exceptions, the usefulness and safety of hypnosis with the severely disturbed patient depends primarily on the skills and sensitivity of the therapist for creating a positive relationship with this population. Accessing the hypnotic capacity and potential usefulness of hypnosis for the severely disturbed patient requires the development and maintenance of trust and a positive patient-therapist transference relationship. In addition, just as traditional psychotherapy with the severely disturbed patient requires special skills to provide firm limits within a supportive environment and special sensitivity to the pacing of...

The Early Period A Pessimistic View Of Hypnosis With Severely Disturbed Patients

The current status of clinical hypnosis in the treatment of Personality and Psychotic Disorders has been evolving since the mid-1800s. The earliest notation of successful hypnosis with a psychotic patient was reported by Esquirol in 1838. In this report, Esquirol described experiments done by Abbe Faria and himself in 1813 and 1816 on the effects of magnetism in mental disease. Esquirol reported that he and Faria experimented on eleven women, either insane or monomanic. He stated that only one of these eleven women responded to the magnetic influence (Lavoie & Sabourin, 1980). Later, in 1868, Dr Andries Hoek, a practicing physician in The Hague, reported on his successful treatment of a psychotic patient with hypnosis in 1851 (van der Hart & van der Velden, 1987). Following this report by Hoek, the French psychiatrist Auguste Voisin also reported positive clinical work with psychotic patients (1884, 1887, 1897a,b). Voisin described work with patients with delusional psychotic...

Hypnosis And Chronic Pain Management Useful Clinical Strategies

The typical chronic pain patient will be taking several medications, and will have been treated unsuccessfully by several specialists before considering hypnosis. These may have included neurologists and (neuro)surgeons ('when in doubt, cut it out'), manipulative procedures by orthopedic and chiropractic specialists ('when in doubt, pound it out'), physical therapists ('when in doubt, walk it out'), mental health professionals ('when in doubt, talk it out'), and extensive pharmacological intervention ('when in doubt, medicate'). For these patients, the demand, 'hypnotize me and get rid of my pain', is often an invitation to failure. When the burden of cure is abrogated to the implicit magic of the technique, any initial attempt to use hypnosis at best would be unsuccessful, and at worst, would precipitate an early termination of the therapeutic encounter. Most pain patients have been unable to accept their current reduced functionality, and angrily demand to be helped 'return to the...

Hypnosis And Psychoneuroimmunology

In light of current interest in psychoneuroimmunology and mind-body connections, a somewhat neglected area of hypnotherapy research of major theoretical and practical interest is the underlying neurophysiological processes that might mediate hypnosis in its contribution to immunomodulation. Interpretation of earlier research is hindered by methodological shortcomings these shortcomings are now being addressed and overcome with the most recent wave of research. It is suggested that the reduction of stress, enhancement of positive emotional states and enhanced imaginal processing that often occur during clinical applications of hypnosis may be contributing factors. Spiegel (1993) suggests that self-hypnosis may enhance feelings of control which, in turn, produce reduced pain and increased immune functioning for highly hypnotizable individuals and, perhaps, lows as well. Whether physiological reactivity, hypnotic responsiveness, mood state, or some other factor mediates these...

The Transitional Period A More Optimistic View Of Hypnosis With Severely Disturbed Patients

A significant breakthrough in understanding the potential use of hypnosis with psychotic patients came in 1945 with the publication of Lewis Wolberg's book on the hypnoanalysis of Johan R. Johan R. had been confined on the chronic ward of a hospital with a diagnosis of hebephrenic schizophrenia when Wolberg first attempted to work with him. It took Wolberg more than a year to establish a beginning therapy relationship with the patient. Beginning with traditional psychoanalytic techniques, Wolberg decided to experiment with hypnosis when the patient experienced difficulty with traditional free association. Initial attempts at hypnosis were unsuccessful. However, eventually dream interpretation allowed the patient to utilize hypnosis and ultimately to conclude a positive hypnoanalytic treatment. Johan R. was eventually discharged with no outward trace of mental disorder. A post-treatment Rorschach test revealed no evidence of anxiety and no neurotic or psychotic tendencies. A follow-up...

Training In Hypnosis My Programs And How I Teach Them

First, I will present two workshops, each given over 8 weeks in the evenings one in the Fall and one in the Spring. Each workshop is 22 hours in length, lasting nearly 3 hours each evening. They are titled 'Clinical Methods in Hypnosis and Psychotherapy Integration and Applications Introductory Workshop (Fall) and Advanced Workshop (Spring).' Then, I will describe briefly an ongoing Senior Seminar which meets monthly throughout the year for graduates of the first two workshops. While the introductory workshop imparts basic skills in hypnosis, the advanced workshop creates an environment encouraging its use in ongoing patient care. In both workshops, attention is given to helping the clinician change his or her attitude and receptiveness to using new skills in psychotherapy and, if possible, to widening and broadening the understanding of how psychotherapy works in both short-term and long-term treatment settings. While psychodynamic understanding of the patient and the therapist...

Phase Ivteach Selfhypnosis

Generally, once the evaluative and educational phases are complete, and hypnotiz-ability has been assessed, the clinician is ready to teach the client self-hypnosis. This is phase IV of the preparation process. A principle for success is to separate the teaching of hypnosis from the presenting problem. For example, the client who presents with a headache should not receive a first intervention for symptom relief until basic hypnotic principles have been taught. Otherwise, the clinician risks the client viewing hypnosis as a failure, should the headache not be relieved. In addition, because hypnosis is considered a skill, it is subject to improvement with practice. Clients can be instructed to practice self-hypnosis, thereby increasing their skills while simultaneously validating their altered state, thus increasing positive expectancies.

Hypnosis And Depression The Definition Of Hypnosis

Yapko (1992) argues that the discrepancy in opinion about the value of hypnosis in the treatment of depression can, in part, be understood by variations in the model of hypnosis being utilized. He describes three general models traditional, standardized, and utilization. Other workers distinguish between directive and non-directive or Ericksonian techniques. The opposition to the use of hypnosis in depression is primarily associated with the traditional, standardized or directive approaches and hence Yapko (1992) argues that the association is a function of the model of hypnosis used rather than of hypnosis per se. This point of view suggests the empirical question of whether one approach to working with depressed individuals is more useful than another.

Adverse Effects Of The Experience Of Hypnosis

Early concerns about the possible adverse effects of hypnosis were related to the issue of volitional control and the potential for the hypnotized subject to act in ways in which they would not otherwise behave or accept. In particular, concern The issue of volitional control and hypnosis is beyond the scope of this chapter. It is sufficient to comment that the answer to the question 'can subjects be caused, as a result of hypnosis, to act in ways that they would find unacceptable or potentially harmful to themselves or others ' remains equivocal. 'Maybe yes, maybe no' seems to be the answer, varying with the context, subject characteristics, the techniques used, and the psychological processes which may be outside the participant's awareness. Does the state of altered cognitive processes resulting from hypnosis itself pose a danger It is unlikely that a 'state' that is available within most peoples' repertoire of psychological functioning could in itself be physically harmful. Seldom...

Hypnosis And The Triphasic Treatment Of Trauma

Quently, most traumatized persons with major dissociative manifestations are excellent candidates for the use of therapeutic hypnosis in the absence of contraindications. In the phase of safety, hypnosis may play a role in relaxation, anxiety relief, symptom relief, ego-building, the creation of a safe place, affect regulation, accessing dissociated ego states, and the control of flashbacks and sleep disruption, among many other applications. Even suggestions of permissive amnesia have a role in some cases, in which the patient is totally devastated by what has befallen him or her, and is falling into a major regression, or becoming suicidal. In the phase of recollection and mourning, hypnosis may play an important role in relieving amnesia the management of abreactions the reconfiguring of ego states to ensure that work with one state's trauma does not mobilize others, leading to decompensation or alloplastic responses to painful material and the containment and relief of the anguish...

The Integrative Period The Acceptance Of Hypnosis And The Integration Of Technique And Theory

In the 1980s, the literature of clinical case reports of successful hypnotic work with both psychotic and personality disorder patients continued to grow. However, in addition to these clinical case reports, the literature began to present new hypnotic techniques for working with psychotic and personality disorder patients and the integration of these techniques into established psychological theory and conceptual models of hypnosis (Baker, 1981, 1983a, b Brown, 1985 Brown & Fromm, 1986 Copeland, 1986 Fromm, 1984 Murray-Jobsis, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991b, 1992, 1993, 1995, l996 Scagnelli, 1980 Scagnelli-Jobsis, 1982 Vas, 1990 Zindel, 1992, 1996). In l980, Scagnelli reported on the use of trance by both the patient and therapist. Brief vignettes were presented of work with both psychotic and personality disorder patients. It was noted that patients with this severity of disorder frequently utilized hypnosis for ego strengthening and integration of their emotional and...

Therapeutic Intervention With Hypnosis

When evaluating a new patient, I listen to the patient's communication regarding dysphoric feelings of helplessness, anxiety, hopelessness, inner tension, insomnia, fear, restlessness, and so on. I introduce the idea of using hypnosis by making it relevant to the patient's presenting symptoms, saying to the patient something like this, 'Would you like to learn an exercise of how to reduce your anxiety and promote a sense of calmness and relaxation ' Patients generally respond affirmatively. I then proceed by teaching the patient a self-hypnosis exercise loaded with suggestions and images of calmness and comfort, asking the patient to select a place associated in their mind with such feelings. Some patients select a mountain trail, an inland lake or a state park, many select an ocean beach.

Research On Hypnosis

The most popular treatment seems to be the combination of a cognitive-behavioral approach and hypnotherapy. In most of these studies, no relation between hypnotizability and weight loss has been detected (Aja, 1977 Cohen & Alpert, 1978 Deyoub, 1978, 1979a,b Kroger, 1970 Miller, 1974 Spiegel & DeBetz, 1978 Stanton, 1975 Wadden & Flaxman, 1981). In contrast with these findings, other researchers (Anderson, 1985 Barabasz & Spiegel, 1989) have shown a greater weight reduction in more highly hypnotizable patients. When individual versus group therapy using hypnosis were compared, no difference in weight reduction was found (Collins, 1985) nor did the sex of the therapist male or female appear to have any influence on weight reduction. In a critical review, Wadden & Anderton (1982) stated that hypnosis can achieve the same average weekly weight reduction as behavior therapy. They concluded that hypnosis induction adds nothing essential to the treatment of obesity and that...

Hypnosis And Memory

The use of hypnosis to enhance memory can lead to major changes in recall, as well as in the confidence that people hold in the accuracy of their recall. The influence of hypnosis on memory generally has been the focus of substantial investigation and comment (American Medical Association, 1985, 1994 American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, 1995 Laurence & Perry, 1988 McConkey & Sheehan, 1995 Pettinati, 1988, Scheflin & Shapiro, 1989), and the influence of hypnosis on recovered memory has been the focus of two special issues of the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (October 1994 April 1995). Overall, it is clear that people can believe strongly in the accuracy of their hypnotically enhanced memories, even when those memories are wrong. In summary of the experimental findings about the effect of hypnosis on memory, McConkey (1992) concluded, 'It should be understood clearly that the experimental findings provide no guarantee that any benefits (e.g.,...

Training In Hypnosis

Training programs in using hypnosis differ from each other around the world. Each program strives for standards of training that enhance the learning, accreditation, and public trust in practitioners of hypnotic interventions in individuals seeking responsible health care. While many clinicians want to learn hypnosis in order to treat the more difficult cases which they encounter, true proficiency occurs over time and requires advanced workshops in subsequent months or years. Moreover, an important principle is that no one should treat those patients with hypnosis that one is not trained and comfortable treating without hypnosis. A final part of training is devoted to ethical principles, professional conduct, and certification. Joining national and international organizations ensures future personal and professional development. Current controversies in hypnosis research and their applications to clinical practice raise major issues. Dr Bloom stresses the danger of accepting as...

What Is Hypnosis

Like many psychological phenomena, intelligence, depression and anxiety, hypnosis is defined according to the subjective experience and report of participants and by the phenomena that accompany the 'hypnotic state.' The characteristics of this state include a redistribution of attention to an inward focus, a reduction of critical International Handbook of Clinical Hypnosis. Edited by G. D. Burrows, R. O. Stanley and P. B. Bloom 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd judgment and reality testing, a suspension of forward planning, increased suggestibility, heightened imagery or involvement in fantasy, and hypnotic role behaviour. While there are many definitions of hypnosis, the most widely accepted is that proposed by the British Medical Association as a result of their investigation into the use of hypnosis in medicine in 1955 (BMA, 1955, 1982) Hypnosis is a temporary condition of altered perception in the subject which may be induced by another person and in which a variety of phenomena may...

Specific Disorders And Applications

7 Hypnosis and Recovered Memory Evidence-Based Practice 97 8 Hypnosis in the Management of Stress and Anxiety Disorders 113 9 Hypnosis and 129 10 Hypnosis, Dissociation and Trauma 143 15 Hypnotherapy in Obesity 221 17 Hypnosis in Chronic Pain Management 247 18 Hypnosis and Pain 261 19 The Use of Hypnosis in the Treatment of Burn Patients 273 20 Hypnosis in 285 22 Applications of Clinical Hypnosis with Children 309 23 The Negative Consequences of Hypnosis Inappropriately

Volitional Changes And Alterations In Voluntary Muscle Activity

Subjects undergoing hypnotic induction procedures frequently report a sense of their behaviour as being under their normal control. Weitzenhoffer (1978) discussed this as a feature of the 'classic suggestion effect' that is a characteristic of hypnosis. This suggestion effect has two component criteria (a) that there must be a response to a suggestion (b) that the response must be experienced as avolitional. Relaxation, paralysis, automatic movements and rigid catalepsy may all be experienced as avolitional changes in response to hypnotic suggestion. Enhanced muscle performance may also be reported, but this may be due to reduced perception of muscle fatigue, rather than to actual improved performance.

Who Are Our Hypnotic Clients Indications

This new exposition of hypnosis changes the way we think about patient selection. No longer is it simply a matter of the doctor selecting what is best for the patient. This change in how we think about hypnosis, in combination with our increasing understanding of the interactive nature of the treatment process and the relational aspects (Miller, 1986 Surrey, 1984) of the 'doctor-patient' partnership alters the lens through which we view the suitability of hypnosis for clients. In fact, patients are far more apt to present in our offices requesting an hypnotic intervention. We might then think of clients as falling into several categories. There is that group of clients who present with symptoms that are particularly amenable to an hypnotic intervention. Areas of increased use of hypnosis include stress reduction, pain management wellness, and uncovering work in a psychodynamic relationship. Many of these clients are sophisticated in their knowledge of alternative health benefits and...

Have You Considered Or Gathered Information About Medicalorganic Etiology

For example, a highly hypnotizable client presented with what he thought was a sprained ankle to an inexperienced therapist, and asked to be hypnotized so he could manage the pain. His responsiveness to the hypnotic suggestion that he would feel no pain, allowed him to walk on the injured foot for several days, after which time increased swelling led him to the Emergency Room, and an x-ray determined he had a broken ankle. This is not a danger inherent in hypnosis, but a danger in the clinician's faulty judgment. The skillfulness and clinical experience of the practitioner are operating variables that affect outcome of treatment and need to be separated from the value or success of hypnosis itself.

Whatis The History Of Previous Treatments

In making the determination as to whether an hypnotic intervention is suitable for a client, it is important to learn whether the client has had any prior experience with hypnosis or other alternative health approaches such as meditation, relaxation tapes or guided imagery. When there has been previous experience, inquiry about the client's experience as to depth of trance, reaction to suggestions, and the client's measure of the success or usefulness of the previous interventions, will provide the clinician with valuable data. This feedback will be useful in several areas continuing to set positive expectancies for the client tailoring the hypnotic intervention to the individual needs of the client and correcting misinformation. Therapists report that when a previous experience with hypnosis has soured a client on the use of hypnosis, it may still be valuable to pursue the consideration of using hypnosis, patiently correcting misinformation and encouraging the client to reassess the...

What Is The Clients Motivation

Assessing both conscious and unconscious motivation of a client is an integral part of the evaluation and treatment plan. Asking what brings the client in at this time, will often summon important motivational material. Asking what it will be like if the presenting problem is relieved, may also get at underlying contributors to symptomatology, and secondary gain factors. When motivation is low or absent, an effective treatment plan will include strategies to increase motivation. Once treatment has begun, and consent for hypnosis has been obtained, hypnosis may be

What Is The Clients Metaphor For The Presenting Problem

The way in which clients describe and report their presenting problem is useful information for the hypnotherapist. Hypnosis is about communication, and, some would say, about communication with the unconscious aspects of the individual (Rossi & Cheek, 1988 Weil, 1995, pp. 93-97)). While proven models for empirical investigation of how metaphoric information produces change are still lacking, the literature abounds with case examples of positive outcomes both somatically and psychologically with the use of client's metaphors in hypnosis (Hammond, 1990 Malmo, 1995).

PHASE lll Hypnotizability Assessment

The assessment of hypnotizability is phase III of patient preparation. Standard measures may be used, although increasingly these are limited to research settings. The most common measurement instruments are The Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scales for Adults and Children, The Hypnotic Induction Profile, the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Forms A, B, and C, and the Children's Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. Other research instruments include the Stanford Profile Scales of Hypnotic Susceptibility, the Barber Suggestibility Scale, the Creative Imagination Scale, the Wexler-Alman Indirect Susceptibility Scale and the Waterloo Stanford Group C Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility.

Some General Clinical Considerations Relating To Memory

In the application of hypnosis, there are general considerations that must be respected and these relate primarily to locating the correct balance between In clinical practice, hypnosis typically relates to a range of applications which can involve major issues for practitioners when hypnosis is used in a therapeutic way. Factors requiring attention relate to the perceived association between emotion and recall in hypnosis, the implication of falsifications occurring in hypnosis, the possibility that confirmation or suggestions of abuse may be inadvertently communicated to the client, and interpretations of the 'evidence' of a session being drawn which could be inconsistent with scientific data. Clinical concern can be wider than the pursuit of client 'improvement.' These general professional considerations are nearly always relevant, but have particular relevance to some cases. Legitimate questions can often be raised as to whether the use of hypnosis has a timely investigative...

Towards an Understanding of How Hypnotic Interventions Work

No longer can one hypothesize hypnosis to be a right-hemisphere task, a commonly espoused theory popular since the 1970s (e.g., Graham, 1977 MacLeod-Morgan, 1982), or that highly hypnotizable individuals exhibit greater right hemisphericity (Gur & Gur, 1974). Rather there is growing evidence (Crawford, 1994a Crawford & Gruzelier, 1992 Gruzelier, 1988) that hypnotic phenomena selectively involve cortical and subcortical processes of either hemisphere, dependent upon the nature of the task, as well as shifts in attention and 'disattention' processes Thus, hypnosis instructions 'can be seen to trigger a process that alters brain functional organization a process that at the same time is dependent on individual differences in existing functional dynamics of the central nervous system.' (Crawford & Gruzelier, 1992, p. 265 Crawford, 1996, p. 254) During the transition from the 1990s, labeled the 'Decade of the Brain,' into the twenty-first century, new discoveries about the...

Neurophysiological Evidence For Hypnotic Analgesia Effects

Hypnosis is one of the best documented behavioral interventions for controlling acute and chronic pain in adults and children (for reviews, see Barber & Adrian, 1982 Chaves, 1989, 1994 Crawford, 1994a, 1995a,b Crawford, Knebel & Vendemia, 1998 Crawford, Knebel, Vendemia, Horton & Lamas, 1999 Evans, 1987 Evans & Rose, chapters 18a, 18b this volume Ewin, chapter 19 this volume Gardner & Olness, 1981 Hilgard & Hilgard, 1994 J. R. Hilgard & LeBaron, 1984). The reader is referred to two special issues (October 1997 January 1998) on 'Hypnosis in the Relief of Pain' in the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (Chaves, Perry & Frankel, 1997, 1998). This section will address (a) recent advances in the understanding of the neurophysiology of pain relevant to our understanding the effectiveness of hypnotic analgesia interventions and (b) neurophysiological studies of hypnotic analgesia. completely eliminate all perception of pain or distress during...

Memory Repression And Recovered Memory

By memory for nontraumatic events (Kihlstrom, 1994, 1995) equally, memory should follow the same principles whether or not hypnosis is involved (Kihlstrom & Barnhardt, 1993). Notably though, at a biological level, the release of neural hormones during trauma may enhance the consolidation and storage of memory for that event (Cahill, Prins, Weber & McGaugh, 1994 but see Bremner, Krystal, Charney & Southwick, 1996). Also, the experience of trauma may be more likely to lead to the occurrence of recurrent and intrusive memories than to the forgetting of that experience (Frankel, 1994 LeDoux, 1991 LeDoux, Romanski & Zagoraris, 1989).

Cognitively Restructuring The Experience Of Depression

Alladin's (1994) Cognitive Dissociative Model utilizes the hypnotic process to facilitate cognitive restructuring. He describes a theoretical model linking hypnosis with depression and reports preliminary data finding no difference in outcome between this treatment methodology and Beck et al.'s (1979, 1985) cognitive therapy approach . However, subjects in the cognitive hypnotherapy group showed more rapid improvement, greater reduction in anxiety scores, and a significant increase in self-confidence. Hypnosis has also been used to facilitate imagery techniques, from either a cognitive-behavioural or a psychodynamic theoretical framework. Fromm (1976) successfully used a metaphor of nature and new growth in her therapy with a woman following the deaths of her parents.

Uncovering Age Regression Approaches Intrapsychic Conflicts

The majority of the earlier case reports describing the clinical use of hypnosis with depressed individuals have utilized a psychodynamic framework. Rosen (1955) describes the use of hypnotically induced regression, Abrams (1964) discusses the uncovering of repressed material and Chambers (1968) describes a woman's compulsion to eat raw potatoes in psychoanalytic terms. Haley (1967) details a case report of Milton Erickson's use of hypnosis with automatic drawing in a case of obsessional depression. A significant amount of more recent case material also utilizes hypnotic techniques within a psychodynamic framework. Alden (1995) reports the case of a 35-year-old man with long-standing symptoms of anxiety, depression and multiple traumas, involving the use of hypnosis to provide a 'safe, relaxing framework for the client's therapy and regression to traumatic events'. Gravitz (1994) describes a treatment method illustrated by three cases involving the retrieval and restructuring of past...

Increasing Selfesteem Empowerment And Control

In discussing their clinical use of hypnosis for depression, Crasilneck & Hall (1985) state that 'our approach is to increase the patient's ego strength and to enhance his ability to deal with the problems leading to depression' (p. 324). Sachs (1992) describes the use of ego-strengthening achieved by hypnotically enhanced mental imagery, in conjunction with progressive relaxation in the management of cancer patients. McBrien's (1990) depression prevention programme utilizes self-hypnosis to produce an increased confidence in managing and reducing depressed feelings. Hypnosis is also used to increase the ability to experience positive thoughts and feelings that lead to an increase in pleasant events.

Modification Of Suicidal Impulses

Despite the concern expressed by some therapists that the use of hypnosis may increase suicide risk, other workers have attempted to use the technique to modify suicidal impulses. Hodge (1972, in Hammond, 1990) describes suggestions to deter suicide. These involve the use of direct suggestions to enter a trance and contact the therapist in response to suicidal ideation. 'In the trance you will be unable to commit suicide unless I give you permission the trance itself may be just the factor you need to break up your suicidal thoughts and to help you to relax and find better ways to handle your problems' (p. 332). Wright & Wright (1987) describe the use of hypnotic techniques to develop a 'suicide fantasy' in which the suicidal images

Utilizing Hypnotic Techniques In A Cognitivebehavioural Management Programme For Depression

A range of possibilities exists for the integration of hypnosis with cognitive-behavioural techniques. These include 4 The process of cognitive restructuring may be facilitated by the use of hypnotic techniques. Alladin (1994) describes a process of cognitive restructuring under hypnosis. Trance is established and the client imagines a situation that normally causes distress. The client is then instructed to 5 Hypnosis may be used to facilitate imagery and cognitive rehearsal strategies to deal with depressive thoughts and behaviours. Clarke & Jackson's (1983) method for the use of visualization and rehearsal strategies with hypnosis for assertive problems (p. 256) may serve as a useful starting point for the use of similar strategies for depression.

Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

This category encompasses wide diversity, including cases with great similarity to dissociative identity disorder (often called ego-state disorders), derealization without depersonalization, the dissociative sequelae of coercive persuasion, dissociative trance disorder (see above), Ganser's syndrome, dissociative psychoses, some gender identity disturbances, and a mixture of dissociative symptoms of all sorts (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 Coons, 1992b). The use of hypnosis with such patients will parallel its use in patients with the conditions most akin to the symptom clusters in question. Coons' (1992b) study is a landmark contribution. Very little else has been written about the treatment of these patients, except for those forms most akin to dissociative identity disorder. The ego-state model of Watkins and Watkins (1997), which employs hypnosis to access and work with ego states, to negotiate among them, and to resolve their traumata, may be very effective with this...

Metaphorical Prescriptions

As part of the whole treatment program my patients are given concrete assignments reinforced with hypnotic suggestions for improved therapeutic outcome. These assignments which they are asked to complete, are designed so that the patient will metaphorically and concretely experience a feeling of success, as well as a sense of gaining mastery, control, and exercising new choices and options. Examples of such metaphorical prescriptions are the following

Concrete Applications Of Hypnotic Techniques

Many obese patients are often very tense and have learned to reduce this tension through excessive eating. It is therefore useful to teach a self-hypnosis exercise for relaxation and as an alternative coping strategy for overeating. Patients will be strongly encouraged to practice their self-hypnosis daily by means of an audiocassette. To introduce hypnosis, we use a classical induction technique with eye fixation and deepening suggestions. Next, the patient will be asked to imagine herself in a safe, secret place, wherein she can become even more and more relaxed and further reflect upon the things in her (or his) life that are important right now. During hypnosis, suggestions can be made, for instance (see also Coman & Evans, 1995) Most obese people have eating habits that differ strongly from those of normal weight people. They often eat almost automatically, half-consciously and very quickly. Teaching how to return to normal eating habits is therefore an important part of the...

Final Phase Prevention Of Relapse

Most treatments are exclusively aimed at quick weight reduction and ignore the crucial goal, namely weight stabilization and prevention of relapse. Relapse is probably the most frequently quoted problem in the treatment of obesity. A follow-up lasting 1 to 2 years is therefore absolutely indicated to prevent possible relapse. The patient will have to be regularly encouraged and stimulated to follow the agreements and to practice hypnotic exercises on a daily basis. Physical exercise and sport must be practiced every day. Post-hypnotic suggestions can further be offered to strengthen and reinforce daily commitment to the agreements. In the near future, computer programs designed to better master obesity problems, may become very helpful in this regard.

Treatment Of Sexual Dysfunctionan Integrated Approach

At that time, as an extension of their seminal works. While Kaplan (1974, 1979) does not discuss the potential role of hypnotically based therapies in her excellent work, she does offer an integrated approach into which hypnosis can be added. The fourth component of treatment involves therapeutic interventions specifically targeting sexual behavior and learning, those most commonly thought of as 'sex therapy'. A therapeutic agreement or contract is established with the patient, or preferably the patient and partner, after an outline of the approach to be undertaken has been given. Once the therapeutic intervention is embarked upon through the cooperative effort of therapist and patient or couple, ongoing re-evaluation is essential to determine whether further information relevant to the aetiology has emerged in the process of therapy. Assessment of the outcome at each stage of treatment is a useful feedback mechanism to assist the therapist and patient or couple in refining the...

Dissociative And Placebo Components Of Hypnotic Pain Management

The significant contributions to understanding the nature of acute pain that have been made in the hypnosis literature will not be reviewed. The meticulous psychophysical studies of experimental pain conducted by Hilgard (1969, 1977) and others have shown that there is a lawful relationship between the intensity of 1. There was a dramatic increase in pain tolerance for deeply hypnotizable subjects during hypnotically induced analgesia. This is likely to be a result of the dissociative aspects of the hypnotic condition when it occurs in subjects or patients who are very responsive to hypnosis. the hypnotic context and the placebo component of ingesting a pill are about equal, and highly correlated (0.76, N 12).1 This is the 'placebo' component of the hypnotic induction procedure. The expectation that hypnosis can be helpful in reducing pain produced similar significant reductions in pain to the expectation derived from taking a pain-killing pill, particularly in those individuals who...

Transition From Acute To Chronic Pain Anxiety To Depression

The management of acute pain (including some aspects of terminal cancer pain and chronic transient headaches Evans, 1989) involves the direct management of anxiety. The growing anxiety about the short- and long-term consequences of an injury or illness which accompanies the increasing intensity of the noxious stimulation is usually relieved by adequate treatment such as pain medication, hypnosis, or any other intervention that reduces anxiety, facilitates relaxation and refocuses attention (Evans, 1990b, 2001). future fear give way to the frightening awareness that a painful injury or condition may have a permanent effect. Despair and despondency develop as the suffering remains partially unrelieved, and activities become restricted. The seductiveness of seeking, demanding, and receiving help from significant others, including doctors and family, the mildly pleasant and or euphoric effects of medication, or the sedation and induced sleep which avoids pain, can produce a reinforcement...

Management Of Chronic Pain

Adequate management of patients with chronic pain requires much time and effort, without which optimal results will be difficult to achieve, and iatrogenic problems may well be produced. In Australia, excellent teaching programmes for doctors, dentists and psychologists in hypnosis, are run by the Australian Society of Hypnosis in the various States (see also Fields, 1975 Working Party on Management of Severe Pain, 1988). The proper use of these approaches, combined with appropriate psychotropic medication, psychological counselling, and with prompt referral of chronic pain patients when indicated to multidisciplinary pain centres (Rose & Fitzgerald, 1987 Rose, 1990) will ensure an improved approach to this difficult area both for the patient and for the busy practitioner. HYPNOSIS AND PAIN

Can Physical Effects Of Hypnotic Analgesia Be Demonstrated

As reviewed in the first part of this chapter, a number of investigations have overwhelmingly supported the effectiveness of hypnosis in providing pain relief. This has been demonstrated for many types of pain experience, and even in patients with low hypnotizability ratings. Spiegel, Bierre & Rooteberg. (1989) found a well-defined physiological effect of hypnosis on pain control. They determined that the amplitude of neurophysiologi-cal responses of hypnotized subjects given pain-blocking imagery was significantly reduced in comparison to that of non-hypnotized subjects. Based on this phenomenon they propose that there is, in fact, a definable neurophysiological basis for pain blockage via hypnosis. There appears to be no real evidence of a relationship between hypnosis and the endorphins natural brain opiates or morphine-like substances. A study in 1975 by Goldstein & Hilgard showed that hypnotic analgesia was not reversed by naloxone, a drug which reverses the analgesic...

Flexibility In The Hypnotic Management Of Pain

Hypnosis frequently contributes to anxiety reduction but this effect can be distinguished from pain reduction. Anxiety is strongly associated with pain but separate from it a person in acute pain will often be anxious whereas chronic pain is usually associated with depression. Benzodiazepine drugs have been shown to reduce pain by relieving anxiety but they do not affect the pain threshold or the physical sensation of pain. Pain tolerance is something beyond sensory pain and suffering so that, in some cases, hypnosis substitutes for a tranquillizer rather than acting as an analgesic. Hypnotherapy is often ineffective with pain of a psychological nature, particularly when pain is seen to be a depressive equivalent. Masked depression is one of the conditions where hypnosis should be avoided unless the hypnotist is able to deal properly with depression, using medication and psychotherapy. This situation should be suspected if the patient gives a history of sleep disorder, fatigue, lack...

Specific Pain Control Techniques

Simply telling patients under hypnosis that the pain will disappear and will not return when the patient is in the normal waking state may lead to an apparent reduction in pain. 4. Hypnosis can be used to change pain sensations into more easily tolerated sensations. It can be suggested that the pain will be experienced as a pleasant 'buzzing' or 'warmth' sensation rather than an acute or deep sensation.

Migraine And Dolphins

In his book Applied Hypnosis and Hyperempiria, Gibbons (1979) presents a catalogue of useful imagery techniques. Gibbons believes that the use of imagery can in fact enhance sensory experiences. Thus, patients are better able to utilize suggestions aimed at helping them to achieve pain relief or even a significant change in behaviour. Amongst these is a dolphin image where patients are asked to imagine themselves as a dolphin swimming in the sea. Gibbons suggested that the slowing of the heartbeat and decreasing blood pressure this imagery produces, leads to an alleviation of the circulatory congestion in the head with a consequent cessation of headache symptoms in some patients who suffer from migraine and other stress-induced headaches.

Regression And Depression

The metabolic rate rises significantly with burns, and attains a maximum of twice normal when the extent of the burn reaches 60 of body surface. Meeting caloric requirements is imperative for good wound healing, and recent studies indicate that enteral feeding may protect against endotoxemia and is preferable to intravenous feeding. Burned patients are often aware of the odor of their secretions and feel queazy or lacking in appetite. Hypnosis is widely used to control the nausea associated with chemotherapy, and Crasilneck (Crasilneck et al., 1955) has reported a depleted burn patient who increased his oral intake to 8000 Kcal per day with hypnotic suggestions to eat everything on his plate.

Body Image And Physical Rehabilitation

Physical rehabilitation requires determination to stretch out contractures, ignoring or modifying perceptions of itching and irritation in scars, and overcoming heat intolerance (Wakeman, 1988). Above all, one must persevere in physical therapy until maximal improvement is attained. Physicians tend to leave this to the physiotherapist so completely that it is almost like abandoning the patient. Hypnotic suggestions directed at these problems near the end of treatment are a final expression of interest and encouragement, and give the physician a matchless opportunity to congratulate the patient on his participation in the outcome, as he resumes control of his own life.

Visiting The Dentist Is Entrancing

Hypnosis plays a vital role in every dental practitioner's interaction with patients. The frightened patient walking into the dental treatment room is most certainly in a trance state. The dentist with training in clinical hypnosis can transform that intense sense of powerlessness and fright to a state of inner calm and comfort. Probably the greatest benefit of clinical hypnosis to the dentist is the ability to recognize the patient's state of consciousness and apply verbal and non-verbal hypnotic strategies to enhance patient comfort. The dental practitioner has an assortment of tools available to help the patient distract and dissociate from the frightening feeling of being a vulnerable subject in the dental chair. Projecting an educational or entertaining video program on a personalized 3-D monitor is extremely effective for the patient who is visual but reluctant to engage in auto-visual imaging. A headset with an audiotape player is effective for the patient who is auditory and...

Cant Hear Over The Sound Of The Drill

When patients visit a physician or mental health professional, they expect verbal interactions. That is not the case with dentistry. Patients coming to the dentist expect their mouth to be treated, not talked about or analyzed. With the advent of stereophonic headphones the dentist can offer positive hypnotic suggestions while taking care of the mouth. With the use of the waterproof cassette player (which can be sanitized between patients), the dental patient can be distracted and dissociated by the soothing suggestions of the doctor's voice and also enjoy an audio shield from the piercing noise of the dental drill. The dental practitioner can prepare 'generic' audiotapes that are consistent with the practice's philosophy or offer prerecorded music, humor or educational instructional audiotapes. For the doctor who is willing to invest a little time in preparing patient tapes, it is recommended that the form of speech be primarily in the passive voice and the text be devoid of

Is The Pain In The Main Plainly In The Brain

Effectively managing TMD requires a two-pronged approach of physically eliminating the noxious dental stimulus and mentally relaxing the muscles of mastication and muscles of facial expression. The use of medication and massage of sore muscles may expedite the healing process. Treatment of the physical etiology may be as simple as polishing fillings that have expanded with the course of time. Other treatment options may range from wearing a specially designed 'bite guard' appliance during sleep (or when stress is experienced during the day), to comprehensive orthodontic treatment and full mouth reconstruction with dental implants, crowns and bridges. But it may be impossible to determine the proper bite relation as long as the supporting muscles are in the clenched or braced posture. Resolution of the disorder requires a coordinated effort. The patient needs to learn how to relax the muscle of mastication and the dentist needs to adjust the bite for optimal comfort. Learning how to...

Dental Anxiety Disorders Hypnotizability And Phobic Disorders

Frankel (1974) was the first to report this relationship. He found that 58 of a group of 24 phobic patients were highly responsive to hypnosis when evaluated on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGHS A, Shore & Orne, 1962). The phobic group was also found to be significantly more hypnotiz-able than a control group of patients wishing to stop smoking. He further suggested that there was a relationship between hypnotizability and the aetiology of phobias. Supporting data were presented by Frankel & Orne (1976) and Frankel (1974, 1976). Gerschman et al. (1979) obtained similar results with dental phobics 48 of the sample of 40 patients scored within the high susceptible range of hypnotiz-ability on the Diagnostic Rating Procedure (DRP, Orne & O'Connell, 1977). In a further study, Foenander et al. (1980) reported similar findings for a group of 33 mixed phobic patients 45.5 were highly susceptible to the HGSHA a. John, Hollander & Perry (1983) using...

Further Confirming Dental Studies

The study population consisted of 130 dental phobic patients of which 67.7 were female and 33.3 were male. The mean age was 27.2 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 134.7 months. Dental phobic patients showed a significantly higher level of hypnotizability than both the general population and a group of 35 patients with chronic facial pain being treated with hypnosis. There was a significant relationship between hypnotizability and the severity of the phobic

Clinical Applications

Clinical applications of child hypnosis can be broadly divided into six categories. (Table 22.1). These categories provide a practical way of thinking about how these techniques may be applied within a variety of clinical practices of child health care. The clinical vignettes which follow illustrate examples of specific applications, and the use of hypnotic language both in pre-hypnosis conversation and during hypnosis for actual clinical encounters. Table 22.1. Categories of clinical applications of child hypnosis

Biobehavioral Disorders

This group of disorders with clearly identified pathophysiologic origins and effects have been traditionally understood to have significant psychoemotional components. Examples include asthma, migraine, encopresis, Tourette's Syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease, all of which are known to include psychological stress as just one stimulus which may 'trigger' exacerbations or promote difficulties with the disease. Teaching self-hypnosis as an integral component of a comprehensive In the case of a child with encopresis, for example, self-hypnosis may be one strategy of a multimodal therapeutic plan involving education about gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, nutritional guidance (toward an anti-constipating diet), behavior modification and self-monitoring for its value in self-regulation (e.g., regular toilet sitting after meals with a sticker-chart reward system). The effectiveness of hypnosis to regulate functions previously thought to be involuntary has now been well...

Robb O Stanley and Graham D Burrows

Over the years there have been those who have proposed that hypnosis per se may pose some risks for vulnerable individuals (Meares, 1961) while others have proposed that there were no risks at all in the use of hypnosis (Le Cron, 1961). In coming to a conclusion on the issue of adverse effects one must as always consider under what conditions, by whom and with whom hypnotic techniques are being used (Stanley, 1994). Hypnosis complications are unexpected, unwanted thoughts, feelings or behaviors during or after hypnosis which are inconsistent with agreed goals and interfere with the hypnotic process by impairing optimal mental function. There is no prior incidence or history of similar mental or physical symptoms. They are non-therapeutic or anti-therapeutic. (MacHovec, 1988, p. 46) In relation to hypnosis, is there evidence of adverse effects from its use in any domain and to what are such adverse effects attributable Is there evidence that hypnosis itself, as a state or set of...

Age Regression Abreactions And Catharsis

This specific technique has been found useful with patients in whom the underlying dynamic for the eating disorder has been found to be related to past trauma. This can be done by using hypnosis as a diagnostic tool with the aid of such techniques as the affect bridge (Watkins, 1978 Channon, 1981) and other methods of hypnoanalytic exploration in conjunction with ideomotor signalling (Cheek & Le Cron, 1968 Barnett, 1981 Brown & Fromm, 1986). Once this has been identified, the patient can be guided with the use of age regression to the original trauma to which the eating disorder is being related. Many patients then have a chance to fully abreact emotions attached to the original trauma, and the emotional catharsis in the abreaction itself already produces some relief. At times, a significant improvement (although not a full cure) of the eating disorder symptoms is apparent. This has been described in previous publications on the special subgroup of patients with eating disorders...

Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

The treatment of reduced sexual desire may focus on anxiety reduction with respect to emotional intimacy or sexual involvement or the resolution of relationship difficulties. Hammond (1990) provides a script for using the 'master control room' metaphor to step-wise increase sexual functioning. Negotiation and the use of post-hypnotic suggestions in association with the control room analogy also offer ways of improving sexual responsiveness and overcoming patient resistance. Hypnosis offers good opportunities to become absorbed in fantasy, and since a hypnotized subject may respond to fantasy as if it were reality, hypnotic techniques provide good opportunities for rehearsal of effective sexual functioning. The use of revivification of previous sexual arousal successes if appropriate, has been reported. Where anger is the inhibitory emotion metaphoric suggestions of extinguishing a powerful force may be used, such as putting out the inner fire of anger with water or sand the volcano...

Pacifier Finger And Thumb Sucking

If there is an underlying traumatic or symbolic basis for the thumb sucking, it can usually be clarified by an interview under hypnosis, utilizing either the fantasized theater technique or using age regression to the time when thumb sucking would ordinarily have been given up as an outworn habit. If such dynamics are uncovered, their working through must become a primary goal of treatment. Under hypnosis, the child is told that the thumb will begin to taste bitter and that this will act as a reminder that the wish to suck the thumb is gone. The child is told that should the thumb come to the mouth, the bitter taste will be the motive to move the thumb away. Any improvement is given immediate and ample praise, both to the child and the parents, as the symptom has usually become a focus of hostile interaction between parents and child. Self-hypnosis is quite often taught in the control of this problem.

Applications To Childrens Health Care

Hypnosis offers opportunities for child health professionals to facilitate mastery and competency in their child patients clients. As with any treatment strategy one might apply, success is predicated on the patient's understanding of what is going on and why, rather than only upon the patient's behavior conforming to the clinician's theoretical framework or expectations. Successful methods of hypnotherapy include a focus on decision-making and control by the child and attention to the child's preferences in using their imagery skills.

Dissociative Identity Disorder

The treatment of dissociative identity disorder is the subject of a voluminous literature, most of which addresses the role of hypnosis to some extent. Numerous articles by the author, summarized in Kluft (1992a,b), and a more recent text by Phillips and Frederick (1995) focus on hypnotic approaches. Dissociative identity disorder involves lesions of identity, consciousness, and memory. Ideally, treatment should help the patient achieve a subjective sense of a unified identity by integrating the personality states, and eliminate amnestic gaps by both achieving a confluent identity in the here and now and by uncovering amnesia for the past so that the patient develops a coherent and cohesive sense of personal identity and personal history. it is understood that much of what emerges in such treatments cannot be verified, but nonetheless exercises a compelling degree of control over the patient. It is not assumed that all that emerges is accurate (Kluft, 1984, 1996), Another approach to...

Developmental Considerations

What, when, how, and why child hypnosis occurs depends upon many child clinician, family, and circumstantial variables. Age is of little consequence, and is less important than the child's level of maturation, their ability to demonstrate understanding of language, and their ability to concentrate and or attend to something. We are more interested in knowing where they are developmentally to know whether they might be reasonably expected to be responsive to the kinds of strategies useful, for example, for preschool-aged children. For such a child we might ask whether they could, for example, pay attention to and enjoy a pop-up book, be engaged in a bedtime story, or listen to and participate in a story on an audiotape.

Female Sexual Arousal Disorder

The diagnostic criteria of female sexual arousal disorder revolve around inability to attain or maintain adequate sexual arousal, including vaginal vasocongestion, lubrication and vaginal expansion to allow satisfactory sexual activity. This disorder may manifest itself as a dyspareunia but is not classified as such if arousal difficulties are the primary aetiology. The use of fantasy with or without masturbation is an important strategy in the treatment of female sexual dysfunctions which centre around insufficient arousal. By its nature hypnosis allows absorption in fantasy and since in the hypnotic state a hypnotized subject may respond to fantasy as if it were reality, hypnotic techniques provide good opportunities for rehearsal of effective sexual functioning. Hammond (1990) provides some ideas about the appropriate suggestions to use to enhance sexual arousal and encourage vaginal lubrication. These strategies may be similarly applied in hypo-active desire disorders, dyspareunia...

Hypnotizabilityand Clinical Populations

Hypnotizability, that is the individual's capacity to experience hypnosis, is generally described and conceptualized as a stable trait which is relatively resistant to modification (Hilgard, 1975). An opposing view (Spanos, Cross, Menary & Smith, 1988) indicates that cognitive skill training aimed at inculcating positive attitudes and appropriate interpretational sets towards hypnotic responding can produce significant and very substantial enhancement in susceptibility. However, reanalysis of this study using analysis of covariance instead of analysis of variance (Frischolz, 1997) showed that the trait or personal effect accounted for 50 of the variance while the situational effect (type of induction ceremony) accounted for only 17 of the variance, disproving Spanos's claims and confirming that hypnotizability was a trait relatively resistant to modification. Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale (SHCS) Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP)

Graham D Burrows and Sandra G Boughton

Depression is a frequently occurring disorder with estimates of the lifetime risk for Major Depressive Disorder varying from 10 to 25 for women and from 5 to 12 for men. Significant levels of depression are also associated with many other major disorders, such as chronic pain. There appears to be a widespread assumption that hypnosis has no role, indeed is inappropriate, in the management of depression. In Australia, over the past 10 years, material presented for examination by the Australian Hypnosis Society or for publication in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Hypnosis has not included any detailed description of clinical or experimental work on the use of hypnosis in the treatment of depression. The understanding has been that expert opinion regards hypnosis as contraindicated for the management of individuals presenting with depression. It would seem that the situation has not significantly changed since Burrows (1980) concluded that It would seem nevertheless that most...

The Development Of Autobiographical Memory By Boez

American Medical Association, Council on Scientific Affairs (1985). Scientific status of refreshing recollection by the use of hypnosis. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 253, 1918-1923. (Reprinted in Int. J. Clin. Exp. Hypn., 1986, 34, 1-12.) American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, Hypnosis and Memory Committee (1995). Clinical Hypnosis and Memory Guidelines for Clinicians and for Forensic Hypnosis. Des Plaines, IL American Society of Clinical Hypnosis Press. Barnier, A. J. & McConkey, K. M. (1992). Reports of real and false memories The relevance of hypnosis, hypnotizability, and context of memory test. J. Abn. Psychol., 101, 521 -527. Bloom, P. B. (1994). Clinical guidelines in using hypnosis in uncovering memories of sexual abuse A master class commentary. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Hypn., 42, 173-178. Garry, M. & Loftus, E. F. (1994). Pseudomemories without hypnosis. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Hypn., 42, 363-378. Kihlstrom, J. F. (1994). Hypnosis, delayed recall, and the principles of memory. Int. J....

Guidelines For Evidencebased Practice

These comments highlight that clinicians need to know how to work in a setting of ambiguity, uncertainty, and differential demands. Moreover, to engage in competent practice clinicians must have a knowledge of memory research, an understanding of trauma and memory loss, and must develop specific intervention skills and practices to work with clients who may recover memories. In terms of hypnosis, clinicians need to be alert that its use can be potentially problematic in particular, hypnosis can offer no guarantee of the veracity of the reports that it may elicit, and the memories that are recovered during hypnosis may be very difficult to corroborate independently. Moreover, Pope & Brown (1996) set out specific questions that should be addressed by clinicians considering the use of hypnosis to recover memories '(a) Am I competent in the clinical uses of hypnosis as demonstrated by my education, training, and experience (b) Have I adequately considered alternative approaches that do...

What Is The Presenting Problem

The gathering of information about the presenting problem is of chief importance for the clinician. Research done by Torrey suggests that the client's motivation for improvement is determined by several factors of which the first is the 'degree to which the therapist's ability to name the disease and its cause agrees with the views of the patient' (Coe, 1993, p. 73). During the evaluation phase of treatment, the clinician will be establishing rapport, assessing the suitability of hypnosis for the presenting problem, and assessing the client's motivation for change, all the while that clinical data are being gathered. There are strong behavioural components in both the development and maintenance of illness. The clinician will want to identify these factors that affected the development of a condition as part of the assessment phase (Brown & Fromm, 1987).

Introduction And Literature Review

A review of the recent literature on eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia, reveals a remarkable silence on the utilization of hypnosis as a therapeutic tool. It is evident, for example from the book chapters by Walsh (1997) and Yager (1994), as well as journal articles devoted to eating disorders such as that of Doyle (1996), and a whole issue of the Psychiatric Clinics of North America (edited by Yager, 1996) that includes 13 scientific articles on eating disorders. In this special issue, to my surprise, the subject of hypnosis or guided imagery is not even mentioned as a viable option in the treatment of eating disorders. The publications that have appeared in the past decade on the efficacy of hypnotic techniques in the treatment of eating disorders are not even mentioned or cited the subject of hypnosis does not exist in this special issue. This phenomenon reflects a level of ignorance on this subject reminiscent of the old adage 'The eye sees only what the...

Hypnotic Absorption In Fantasy Including Sexual Fantasy Causes The Fantasy To Be Responded To As Reality

A great advantage of the use of hypnosis is that the sexual suggestions or fantasies created either by direct suggestion or indirectly by metaphor are responded to as though they were reality. As well as distracting the patient from negative self talk, this provides for effective sexual desensitization, sexual rehearsal of successful sexual functioning and attitude change.

Chronic Disease Multisystem Disease Terminal Illness

Less is known about the influence of hypnosis and self-hypnosis on the progress of malignant disease than about anxiety. Children with cancer do quickly learn RMI strategies and apply them in a variety of ways to aid in coping with their disease. In 'No Fears, No Tears' and its sequel, 'No Fears, No Tears - 13 Years Later' (Kuttner, 1986, 1999), informative and optimistic films, children with cancer demonstrate the range and usefulness of hypnotic techniques in helping themselves to modify discomfort, effectively manage difficult and repetitive medical procedures, and manage the effects of these challenging treatments. Studies also indicate that children are able to use hypnotic skills to reduce nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy (Zeltzer & LeBaron, 1982 LeBaron & Hilgard, 1984 Jacknow, Tschann, Link & Boyce, 1994). It also has been demonstrated (Olness & Singher, 1989) that children use RMI most effectively when they learn the techniques soon after their...

Dissociative Trance Disorder

Trance disorders often occur in the aftermath of trauma and extreme stress. The triphasic model described above should be applied. In the absence of contraindications, hypnosis may initially be used supportively. The patient, who is having spontaneous and or triggered trance states, can be taught mastery of his or her autohypnotic talents and vulnerabilities by learning to enter and exit trance by choice. While practicing autohypnotic exercises, the patient learns to use this skill to reduce the tensions and pressures that precipitate trances, and to exit from and or preempt spontaneous trance phenomena. This restores a sense of an internal rather than an external locus of control. As the patient feels increased control and strength, and feels less at the mercy of spontaneous or triggered trances, hypnosis

Definition And Theoretical Understanding

Functionally, hypnosis in children can be defined as an alternative state of awareness and alertness (similar in feeling to daydreaming or imagination) in which an individual is selectively focused, absorbed, and concentrating upon a particular idea or image (with or without relaxation), with a specific purpose of achieving some goal or realizing some potential. From this perspective we probably are 'doing' hypnosis work when we engage our young patients in conversation in which they are absorbed, paying attention, listening, and responding as requested. Most children move in and out of spontaneous hypnotic-like states as they focus their concentration, for example on video games, favourite movies (e.g., the Lion King, Pocahontas), TV football, playing 'house', listening to a story, enjoying puppet play, or otherwise engaging in fantasy. Kuttner has noted (1988), that especially young children have blurred boundaries, and move frequently, naturally, and easily from fantasy to reality....

Injunctive Communication

Erickson was a master of injunctive language. In fact, his style of therapy, and especially hypnosis, can be characterized as building responsiveness to injunctive communication. Applying Watzlawick's ideas to Erickson's work affords a useful insight into the mechanisms activated in a typical induction. A good illustration of this is Erickson's well-known early learning set induction (Erickson & Rossi, 1979). A close reading of the induction reveals an indicative level (how a child learns to write the alphabet), and an injunctive level (Erickson's implied instructions about hypnosis directed to the patient). Table 6.1 illustrates this. Questioning whether the child dotted the 't' or crossed the 'i' can confuse the patient. Confusion is part of every hypnosis induction (Haley, 1963), and is used to depotentiate conscious sets (Erickson & Rossi, 1979). Hypnosis may seem difficult at first, but it will become second nature Merely presenting injunctions is not therapy. The therapist...

Historical Perspectives

Hypnosis with children has been documented since ancient times. Many cultures have rich histories of healing, religious, and or initiation rites which involve trance or trance-like phenomena in children. In more modern times Dr Franz Mesmer's application of animal magnetism was used in the treatment of children as well as adults. While the Franklin commission's investigation of Mesmer in 1784 concluded that the described clinical effects were not due to magnetism, it also specifically attributed their observations to 'imagination', now recognized as a critical operative ingredient in child hypnosis. Prior to the development of chemical anaesthesia, Braid and Elliotson successfully applied hypnotic strategies with many children to facilitate their comfort during major surgery. At the end of the nineteenth century, French physicians Liebeault and Bernheim reported the use of hypnotic techniques for childhood habit problems and also reported on child hypnotic susceptibility. In his...

Neurophysiology Of The Hypnotic State It Takes Effort To Be Hypnotized

Hypnosis involves an amplification of focused attention either towards or away from an internal or external event (e.g., Hilgard, 1965, 1986 Krippner & Bindler, 1974). Since the nineteenth century hypnotically responsive persons commonly report profound physical relaxation (for exceptions, see B nyai & Hilgard, 1976) and alterations in perception following a hypnotic induction. In this physically relaxed state, they report their experiences as being more involuntary and effortless (e.g., Bowers, 1982-83), yet, somewhat paradoxically, at the same time more intense and involving than in a nonhypnotic condition. Such paradoxical reports suggest a dissociation between awareness of attentional effort (perceived workload) and perceptual awarenesses. If we view hypnotizable persons as active and 'creative problem-solving agents' (Lynn & Sivec, 1992) who can draw upon their abilities (including absorption, imagery, giving up of reality testing and focused and sustained attention)...

Cognitive Reframing And Restructuring

Cognitive restructuring is described in detail by the Spiegels in their book, Trance and Treatment (1978), and also by cognitive-behavioral therapists such as Meichen-baum (1977) and Kroger and Fezler (1976). In essence, the patient is taught a new way of looking at an old problem and finding new, creative solutions in situations where the patient was cognitively 'chasing his own tail,' and feeling stuck with no way out. The patient with an eating disorder is first guided into a state of self-hypnotic trance, in which the patient is highly receptive to new ideas and suggestions. Under hypnosis, the patient is asked to signify if willing to fully cooperate in this process of therapy, with the aid of ideomotor signalling. Providing the signal is in the affirmative, the therapist may proceed as follows you see, free people don't like to be told don't. Your subconscious mind does not incorporate the word 'don't', and only hears, 'think about a purple elephant,' and then complies...

Do You Really Want To Start Smoking

Another area in which hypnotic strategies are utilized, but the concepts of hypnosis are not mentioned, is in the 3-minute smoking cessation interaction. At the conclusion of the oral examination and cancer screening, if there is an indication by the patient that there is a desire to 'quit', the following sample script is useful.

Conversion Disorder Dissociation And Hypnotic Trance

Dissociation and the hypnotic trance are closely related. Hypnosis can be seen as an altered state of consciousness in which it is possible to focus the attention in a particular direction and thus easily achieve a state of muscle relaxation. During this procedure it is possible to change a subject's experience of pain, cold, heat and other sensory perceptions (Frankel, 1978). This kind of altered perception could also occur in patients with conversion symptoms. Patients feel their legs are paralysed and behave like someone whose paralysis has a physical cause. They see that they are paralysed and feel paralysed. Under hypnosis, disorders such those seen in conversion patients can be evoked and made to disappear again in very suggestible subjects. Research carried out by Bliss (1984) revealed that patients who suffer from a conversion disorder are exceptionally suggestible. The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (Form C, range 0-12) was used to measure the suggestibility of 18...

Graham D Burrows and Robb O Stanley

This volume presents a collection of brief monographs by specialists in various applications of hypnosis to the alleviation of chronic debilitating conditions. Hypnosis has an established role as an adjunct to the healing professions. The many societies and associations of hypnosis practitioners worldwide provide standards of training that enhance the learning, accreditation, and public trust in practitioners of hypnotic interventions in individuals seeking responsible health care. The chapters range from general issues of training and choice of clients, through theoretical considerations of memory, the neurophysiology of hypnosis, and the psychotherapies. A generous admixture of clinical case histories is given. The more specific directions for applications of hypnosis techniques include cautions against problems encountered over years of clinical practice.

Alterations In Perceptions

While many phenomena associated with hypnosis are subtle and few are exclusively related to the hypnotic state, the alterations in sensation, particularly pain, have not been demonstrated to the same extent in nonhypnotic states when suitable subjects and techniques of hypnosis are used. Many descriptions have been given of major and minor surgery carried out with hypnotic anesthesia alone. While this approach is not suggested as the intervention of choice, given the ready availability

Male Erectile Disorder

Crasilneck (1979, 1982) reported an extensive follow-up study of the application of hypnosis to individual patients with erectile dysfunction. Direct suggestions of firm, hard erections can be of assistance, or metaphorical associations of erectile firmness may be suggested in indirect approaches. Suggestions of arm or finger catalepsy may be transferred to erectile functioning (Crasilneck & Hall, 1975 Araoz, 1982 Hammond, 1990). Post-hypnotic suggestions of erectile firmness have proved successful (Crasilneck & Hall, 1975). Hypnotically assisted age regression to a time of successful sexual functioning may be used (Kroger & Fezler, 1976) Hypnotically based desensitization and rehearsal of sexual success may aid in reestablishing confidence and the expectation of successful functioning. Hypnosis may also be used to explore and accentuate past or present sexual fantasies which may then be incorporated into contemporary sexual activity, either in reality with the current...

Sexual Aversion Disorder

Sexual aversions are most commonly found to be equivalent to phobic responses, with both anxiety and avoidance being major components of the difficulties. Hypnosis can be used to facilitate systematic desensitization in fantasy and in reality in much the same way as it would be used with other phobic disorders. Facilitation of anxiety control through the use of cued relaxation while thinking of, fantasizing about, or actually involved in sexual activity, is a very useful component of the use of hypnosis. The use of imaginal exposure to the sexual situation using hypnosis also facilitates the desensitization process. Both uses of hypnosis in effect also assist in curtailing avoidance behaviors.

Historical Use In The Treatment Of Clinical Problems

The use of hypnosis, under other names, for the treatment of clinical problems has a long history, being recorded in ancient scripts describing ritual and religious ceremonies. The phenomena of hypnosis have been used to account for miraculous cures that in the middle ages were attributed to sacred statues, healing springs and the 'laying on of hands' by those of high status or religious power. The more modern use of hypnosis began with the work of the Viennese physician Franz Mesmer, who achieved many spectacular cures which he attributed to the appropriate redistribution of invisible 'magnetic fluid' within the body. In 1784, a commission of Louis XVI could find no evidence of animal magnetism, and attributed Mesmer's successes to suggestion. Despite Mesmer's fall from popularity following the Royal Commission, interest in the clinical application of hypnosis developed rapidly throughout the nineteenth century. The term hypnosis was coined in 1841 by James Braid, a Manchester...

Introductory Workshop Approved And Acceptable By Aschandsceh

All workshop announcements recruit adult participants. The word 'student' is never used. The learning objective enhances the concept of adult education by stating that 'experienced clinicians will gain a solid grounding in the principles and practices of hypnosis, and an understanding of how to integrate it into their own practice of psychotherapy.' (Note that while this workshop is aimed at psychotherapists licensed psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and others on special application the principles described herein are directly applicable to workshops for anesthesiologists, dentists, non-psychiatric physicians, and those dealing with the more 'organic' pathologies of medicine and surgery.) In the beginning, time is taken to introduce participants to each other and to the group leader. By sharing backgrounds together, the stage is immediately set for sharing professional experience. Learning from each other begins immediately with the group leader or faculty person...

Hypnotherapy Health

Hypnotherapy Health

Learning About Hypnotherapy Health Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life And Success. How To Use Audio Hypnotherapy To Improve Your Life And Make Money. Now, a lot more people practice self hypnosis in the comfort of their own homes. While this may be done, it's best to do it one has knowledge or background on the practice.

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