The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) uses the term "metabolic syndrome" to describe a constellation of risk factors associated with insulin resistance, namely abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory states (1). These physiological abnormalities are produced through the interaction of genetic, hormonal, and lifestyle factors. Individuals with metabolic syndrome have a greatly heightened risk of developing diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and renal disease, as well as increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates. Hypertension, one of the most prevalent components of metabolic syndrome, contributes directly to many of these complications. The relationship between blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is continuous, consistent, and independent; the higher the blood pressure, the greater the chance of myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and renal disease. The CVD risk escalates further when other risk factors are present, as in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988-1994) suggest that 47 million US adults (23.7% of the population) have metabolic syndrome (2). Its prevalence increases with age, body mass index (BMI), sedentary
From: Contemporary Endocrinology: Hypertension and Hormone Mechanisms Edited by: R. M. Carey © Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ
lifestyle, smoking, Mexican-American and Indian-American ethnicity, high carbohydrate intake, and postmenopausal status (11,12). NHANES III data indicate that 44% of individuals aged 60-69 yr and 60% of men with a BMI >30 kg/m2 have metabolic syndrome (2). The current prevalence of metabolic syndrome is likely to be much higher than estimated in NHANES III, and is projected to increase further, with a parallel escalation in related health problems, as more and more individuals become severely or morbidly obese. Physicians are in a strategic position to improve the nation's health by early identification and management of individuals with metabolic syndrome, thereby blunting the impending epidemic of cardiovascular and end-organ insulin resistance should be a key initiative in rising to this challenge.
Was this article helpful?
Losing All that Excess Belly Fat and Getting a Well Toned Flat Stomach. Trimming down and toning up your entire body, from head to toe, is definitely something that many people want to do. But chances are, theres one place in particular where all that excess fat just doesnt want to seem to go away, no matter how hard you try.