International collaboration

The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) commissioned a group of specialists (now a Scientific Research Programme, SRP) named Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments (SALE) to ''consider and recommend mechanisms for the international coordination of a subglacial lake exploration program'' (Priscu et al. 2003). Details of the SALE project can be found on its website http salepo.tamu.edu scar_sale. It should be noted that SCAR has no money to fund this level of research. Consequently,...

Issues

3.1.1 Psychological adaptation and time patterns ICE environments have a significant influence on behavioral functioning. The alterations in light-dark periodicity in polar regions disrupt the circadian sleep cycle, resulting in considerable sleep disturbances during the darkness period, and an associated decline in subjective feelings of well-being and alertness in polar areas Bhargava et al. 2000 Natani et al. 1970 Palinkas et al. 1995a Palinkas et al. 1996 . Also in space, the loss of the...

Induced hypometabolism in mammals

Due to the lack of complete scientific data on mammalian natural hypometabolism, a large amount of speculation must be used in planning experimental designs to induce a reversible hyp-ometabolic state in non-hibernating species. However, on the basis of the available knowledge, some selected mechanisms could conceivably lead to induce hypometabolism in mammals. Lowering of ambient temperature could help inducing hibernation since, in general, decrease in body temperature parallels the fall in...

Molecular adaptations of Hortaea werneckii

2.1 Membranes and cell-wall pigmentation As the H. werneckii cell is in contact with its environment via the plasma membrane, the adaptability and flexibility of this membrane is of vital importance to the survival of the cell. The cell should be able to modify the lipid composition and consequently properties of its membranes if the conditions in the environment change. The fluidity of biological membranes is largely influenced by the length, branching and degree of saturation of the fatty...

Natural disasters

Adverse conditions are caused by natural disasters, such as earthquakes or the big tsunami in 2004 for example. Disasters can also be of anthropogenic origin, directly related to human activity or indirectly, as those climate related they are accelerated at an increasing pace of destruction caused by environmental pollution and climate change Ser-ageldin 1997cit, p. 417 , for climate change may influence the increase in the magnitude and frequency of disasters Loster 2003 . Global warming and...