If the voltage of the electrical shocks delivered to an isolated muscle in vitro is gradually increased from zero, the strength of the muscle twitches will increase accordingly, up to a maximal value at which all of the muscle fibers are stimulated. This demonstrates the graded nature of the muscle contraction. If a series of electrical shocks at this maximal voltage is given to a fresh muscle so that each shock produces a separate twitch, each of the twitches evoked will be successively stronger, up to a higher maximum. This demonstrates treppe, or the staircase effect. Treppe may represent a warmup effect, and is believed to be due to an increase in intracellular Ca2+, which is needed for muscle contraction.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.