The Countercurrent Multiplier System

Water cannot be actively transported across the tubule wall, and osmosis of water cannot occur if the tubular fluid and surrounding interstitial fluid are isotonic to each other. In order for water to be reabsorbed by osmosis, the surrounding interstitial fluid must be hypertonic. The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid in the renal medulla is, in fact, raised to over four times that of plasma by the juxtamedullary nephrons. This results partly from the fact that the tubule bends; the geometry of the loop of Henle permits interaction between the descending and ascending limbs. Since the ascending limb is the active partner in this interaction, its properties will be described before those of the descending limb.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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