Test Your Ability to Analyze and Apply Your Knowledge

1. Which surgery do you think would have the most profound effect on digestion: (a) removal of the stomach (gastrectomy), (b) removal of the pancreas (pancreatectomy), or (c) removal of the gallbladder (cholecystectomy)? Explain your reasoning.

2. Describe the adaptations of the GI tract that make it more efficient by either increasing the surface area for absorption or increasing the contact between food particles and digestive enzymes.

Discuss how the ECL cells of the gastric mucosa function as a final common pathway for the neural, endocrine, and paracrine regulation of gastric acid secretion. What does this imply about the effectiveness of drug intervention to block excessive acid secretion?

Bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins can cause a type of diarrhea by stimulating

8. Distinguish between chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and high-density lipoproteins.

9. Identify the different neurons present in the wall of the intestine and explain how these neurons are involved in "short reflexes." Why is the enteric nervous system sometimes described as an "enteric brain"?

10. Trace the course of blood flow through the liver and discuss the significance of this pattern in terms of the detoxication of the blood. Describe the enzymes and the reactions involved in this detoxication.

the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which raises cyclic GMP levels within intestinal cells. Why might this be considered an example of mimicry? How does it cause diarrhea?

5. The hormone insulin is secreted by the pancreatic islets in response to a rise in blood glucose concentration. Surprisingly, however, the insulin secretion is greater in response to oral glucose than to intravenous glucose. Explain why this is so.

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