Test Yourself Before You Continue

1. Describe the changes that occur in the sperm cell and ovum during fertilization.

2. Identify the source of hCG and explain why this hormone is needed to maintain pregnancy for the first i0 weeks.

3. List the fetal and maternal components of the placenta and describe the circulation in these two components. Explain how fetal and maternal gas exchange occurs.

4. List the protein hormones and sex steroids secreted by the placenta and describe their functions.

5. Identify the two agents that stimulate uterine contraction during labor and describe the proposed mechanisms that may initiate labor in humans.

6. Describe the hormonal interactions required for breast development during pregnancy and for lactation after delivery.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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