Test Yourself Before You Continue

1. Describe the effects of castration on FSH and LH secretion in the male. Explain the experimental evidence suggesting that the testes produce a polypeptide that specifically inhibits FSH secretion.

2. Describe the two compartments of the testes with respect to (a) structure, (b) function, and (c) response to gonadotropin stimulation. Describe two ways in which these compartments interact.

3. Using a diagram, describe the stages of spermatogenesis. Why can spermatogenesis continue throughout life without using up all of the spermatogonia?

4. Describe the structure and proposed functions of the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules.

5. Explain how FSH and androgens synergize to stimulate sperm production at puberty. Describe the hormonal requirements for spermatogenesis after puberty.

Suspensory ligament of ovary

Mesovarium Ovary

Round ligament

Broad ligament of uterus

Uterine tube

Ampulla of uterine

Uterine tube

Infundibulum Uterine Tube

Waldrop

Infundibulum of uterine tube

Fimbriae Egg cell Follicle

Waldrop

The uterus, uterine tubes, and ovaries. The supporting ligaments can also be seen in this posterior view.

Uterine tube

Ovary

Uterus

Vaginal orifice

Posterior portion of vaginal fornix

Uterine tube

Ovary

Uterus

Fornix Vaginal

Cervix of uterus

Rectum

Vagina

Vaginal orifice

Cervix of uterus

Rectum

Vagina

■ Figure 20.26 The organs of the female reproductive system. These are shown in sagittal section.

nonkeratinized epithelium that consists of a stratum basale and a more superficial stratum functionale. The stratum functionale, which cyclically grows thicker as a result of estrogen and progesterone stimulation, is shed at menstruation.

The uterus narrows to form the cervix (= neck), which opens to the tubular vagina. The only physical barrier between the vagina and uterus is a plug of cervical mucus. These structures— the vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes—constitute the accessory sex organs of the female (fig. 20.26). Like the accessory sex organs of the male, the female reproductive tract is affected by gonadal steroid hormones. Cyclic changes in ovarian secretion, as will be described in the next section, cause cyclic changes in the epithelial lining of the tract.

The vaginal opening is located immediately posterior to the opening of the urethra. Both openings are covered by longitudinal folds—the inner labia minora and outer labia majora (fig. 20.27). The clitoris, a small structure composed largely of erectile tissue, is located at the anterior margin of the labia minora.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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Responses

  • semhar asmara
    What is the erectile tissue located at the anterior margin of the labia minora?
    5 years ago
  • Jamie-leigh
    Why can spermatogenesis continue throughout life without using up all of the spermatogonia?
    5 years ago
  • nasih
    Are ovarian covered by broad ligament?
    5 years ago
  • miranda brown
    How to finger yourself vagina?
    5 years ago
  • topias kuismanen
    Does ovarian and uterine failure look like?
    5 years ago
  • lisa daecher
    Where are round ligaments located?
    5 years ago
  • Daniel
    What Stage of Puberty?
    5 years ago
  • sirkka
    How to get to vaginal fornix?
    5 years ago
  • Steffen
    Where to find anterior fornix in a vagigal diagram?
    5 months ago

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