2. List the steps involved in the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and state how this formation is influenced by parathyroid hormone.
3. Describe the actions of parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and calcitonin on the intestine, skeletal system, and kidneys, and explain how these actions affect the blood levels of calcium.
4. Account for the different effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on bones according to whether calcium intake is adequate or inadequate.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.