1. State the advantages and disadvantages 5. of anaerobic respiration.1
2. What purpose is served by the formation of lactic acid during anaerobic respiration? How is this accomplished during aerobic 6. respiration?
3. Describe the effect of cyanide on oxidative phosphorylation and on the
Krebs cycle. Why is cyanide deadly? 7.
4. Describe the metabolic pathway by which glucose can be converted into fat. How can end-product inhibition by
ATP favor this pathway? 8.
Describe the metabolic pathway by which fat can be used as a source of energy and explain why the metabolism of fatty acids can yield more ATP than the metabolism of glucose. Explain how energy is obtained from the metabolism of amino acids. Why does a starving person have a high concentration of urea in the blood? Explain why the liver is the only organ able to secrete glucose into the blood. What are the possible sources of hepatic glucose?
Explain the two possible meanings of the term anaerobic respiration. Why is the production of lactic acid sometimes termed a "fermentation" pathway?
9. Explain the function of brown fat. What does its mechanism imply about the effect of ATP concentrations on the rate of cell respiration?
10. What three molecules serve as the major substrates for gluconeogenesis? Describe the situations in which each one would be involved in this process. Why can't fatty acids be used as a substrate for gluconeogenesis? (Hint: Count the carbons in acetyl CoA and pyruvic acid.)
lNote: This question is answered in the chapter 5 Study Guide found on the Online Learning Center at www.mhhe.com/fox8.
Cell Respiration and Metabolism
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.