b. inversely proportional to the end-diastolic volume.
c. independent of the end-diastolic volume.
b. venous return increases.
c. contractility increases.
d. arterial blood pressure increases.
3. Which of these statements about tissue fluid is false?
a. It contains the same glucose and salt concentration as plasma.
b. It contains a lower protein concentration than plasma.
c. Its colloid osmotic pressure is greater than that of plasma.
d. Its hydrostatic pressure is lower than that of plasma.
4. Edema may be caused by a. high blood pressure.
b. decreased plasma protein concentration.
c. leakage of plasma protein into tissue fluid.
d. blockage of lymphatic vessels.
5. Both ADH and aldosterone act to a. increase urine volume.
c. increase total peripheral resistance.
d. produce all of these effects.
6. The greatest resistance to blood flow occurs in a. large arteries.
b. medium-sized arteries.
7. If a vessel were to dilate to twice its previous radius, and if pressure remained constant, blood flow through this vessel would a. increase by a factor of 16.
b. increase by a factor of 4.
c. increase by a factor of 2.
d. decrease by a factor of 2.
b. closing of the AV valves.
d. elastic recoil of the aorta.
c. cholinergic stimulation.
d. products released by the exercising muscle cells.
10. Blood flow in the coronary circulation a. increases during systole.
b. increases during diastole.
c. remains constant throughout the cardiac cycle.
11. Blood flow in the cerebral circulation a. varies with systemic arterial pressure.
b. is regulated primarily by the sympathetic system.
c. is maintained constant within physiological limits.
d. increases during exercise.
12. Which of these organs is able to tolerate the greatest reduction in blood flow?
a. brain b. heart c. skeletal muscles d. skin
13. Which of these statements about arteriovenous shunts in the skin is true?
a. They divert blood to superficial capillary loops.
b. They are closed when the ambient temperature is very low.
c. They are closed when the deep-body temperature rises much above 37° C.
d. All of these are true.
14. An increase in blood volume will cause a. a decrease in ADH secretion.
b. an increase in Na+ excretion in the urine.
c. a decrease in renin secretion.
15. The volume of blood pumped per minute by the left ventricle is a. greater than the volume pumped by the right ventricle.
b. less than the volume pumped by the right ventricle.
Cardiac Output, Blood Flow, and Blood Pressure c. the same as the volume pumped by the right ventricle.
d. either less or greater than the volume pumped by the right ventricle, depending on the strength of contraction.
16. Blood pressure is lowest in a. arteries.
17. Stretch receptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinus a. stimulate secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide.
b. serve as baroreceptors that affect activity of the vagus and sympathetic nerves.
c. serve as osmoreceptors that stimulate the release of ADH.
d. stimulate renin secretion, thus increasing angiotensin II formation.
18. Angiotensin II
a. stimulates vasoconstriction.
b. stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone.
c. inhibits the action of bradykinin.
d. does all of these.
Test Your Understanding of Concepts and Principles
A person who is dehydrated drinks more and urinates less. Explain the
1. Define the terms contractility, preload, and afterload, and explain how these factors affect the cardiac output.1
2. Using the Frank-Starling Law of the 6. Heart, explain how the stroke volume is affected by (a) bradycardia and (b) a "missed beat." 7.
3. Which part of the cardiovascular system contains the most blood? Which part provides the greatest resistance to blood flow? Which part provides the 8.
greatest cross-sectional area? Explain.
mechanisms involved. Using Poiseuille's law, explain how arterial blood flow can be diverted from one organ system to another. Describe the mechanisms that increase the cardiac output during exercise and that increase the rate of blood flow to the heart and skeletal muscles. Explain why an anxious person may have a cold, clammy skin and why the skin becomes hot and flushed on a hot, humid day.
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