Test Your Knowledge of Terms and Facts

1. Which of these statements about the 7

renal pyramids is false?

a. They are located in the medulla.

b. They contain glomeruli.

c. They contain collecting ducts.

d. They empty urine into the calyces. Match these: 8

proximal tubule descending limb of loop ascending limb of loop distal tubule medullary collecting duct

2. Active transport of sodium; water follows passively

3. Active transport sodium; water impermeable to water

4. Passively permeable to water only

5. Passively permeable to water and urea

6. Antidiuretic hormone promotes the retention of water by stimulating a. the active transport of water.

b. the active transport of chloride.

c. the active transport of sodium.

d. the permeability of the collecting duct to water.

Aldosterone stimulates sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion in a. the proximal convoluted tubule.

b. the descending limb of the loop.

c. the ascending limb of the loop.

d. the cortical collecting duct. Substance X has a clearance greater than zero but less than that of inulin. What can you conclude about substance X?

a. It is not filtered.

b. It is filtered, but neither reabsorbed nor secreted.

c. It is filtered and partially reabsorbed.

d. It is filtered and secreted. Substance Y has a clearance greater than that of inulin. What can you conclude about substance Y?

a. It is not filtered.

b. It is filtered, but neither reabsorbed nor secreted.

c. It is filtered and partially reabsorbed.

d. It is filtered and secreted.

10. About 65% of the glomerular ultrafiltrate is reabsorbed in a. the proximal tubule.

b. the distal tubule.

c. the loop of Henle.

d. the collecting duct.

11. Diuretic drugs that act in the loop of

Henle a. inhibit active sodium transport.

b. cause an increased flow of filtrate to the distal convoluted tubule.

c. cause an increased secretion of potassium into the tubule.

d. promote the excretion of salt and water.

12. The appearance of glucose in the urine a. occurs normally.

b. indicates the presence of kidney disease.

c. occurs only when the transport carriers for glucose become saturated.

d. is a result of hypoglycemia.

13. Reabsorption of water through the tubules occurs by a. osmosis.

b. active transport.

c. facilitated diffusion.

14. Which of these factors oppose(s) filtration from the glomerulus?

a. plasma oncotic pressure b. hydrostatic pressure in glomerular (Bowman's) capsule c. plasma hydrostatic pressure d. both a and b e. both b and c

Test Your Understanding of Concepts and

15. The countercurrent exchange in the vasa recta a. removes Na+ from the extracellular fluid.

b. maintains high concentrations of NaCl in the extracellular fluid.

c. raises the concentration of Na+ in the blood leaving the kidneys.

d. causes large quantities of Na+ to enter the filtrate.

e. does all of these.

1. Explain how glomerular ultrafiltrate is produced and why it has a low protein concentration.1

2. Explain how the countercurrent multiplier system works and discuss its functional significance.

3. Explain how countercurrent exchange occurs in the vasa recta and discuss the functional significance of this mechanism.

4. Explain how an increase in ADH secretion promotes increased water reabsorption and how water reabsorption decreases when ADH secretion is decreased.

16. The kidneys help to maintain acid-base balance by a. the secretion of H+ in the distal regions of the nephron.

b. the action of carbonic anhydrase within the apical cell membranes.

c. the action of carbonic anhydrase within the cytoplasm of the tubule cells.

d. the buffering action of phosphates and ammonia in the urine.

e. all of these means.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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Responses

  • oscar
    Which of these statements about the renal pyramids is false?
    8 years ago

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