Test Your Ability to Analyze and Apply Your Knowledge

1. One consequence of the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart is that the outputs of the right and left ventricles are matched. Explain why this is important and how this matching is accomplished.

2. An elderly man who is taking digoxin for a weak heart complains that his feet hurt. Upon examination, his feet are found to be swollen and discolored, with purple splotches and expanded veins. He is told to keep his feet raised and is given a prescription for Lasix, a powerful diuretic. Discuss this man's condition and the rationale for his treatment.

You are bicycling in a 100-mile benefit race because you want to help the cause, but you didn't count on such a hot, humid day. You've gone through both water bottles and, in the last 10 miles, you are thirsty again. Should you accept the water that one bystander offers or the sports drink offered by another? Explain your choice.

19. Which of these is a paracrine regulator that stimulates vasoconstriction?

a. nitric oxide b. prostacyclin c. bradykinin d. endothelin-1

20. The pulse pressure is a measure of a. the number of heartbeats per minute.

b. the sum of the diastolic and systolic pressures.

c. the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.

d. the difference between the arterial and venous pressures.

9. Explain the different ways in which a drug that acts as an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) can lower the blood pressure. Also, explain how diuretics and p1-adrenergic-blocking drugs work to lower the blood pressure.

10. Explain how hypotension may be produced in (a) hypovolemic shock and (b) septic shock. Also, explain the mechanisms whereby people in shock have a rapid but weak pulse, cold and clammy skin, and low urine output.

4. As the leader of a revolution to take over a large country, you direct your followers to seize the salt mines. Why is this important? When the revolution succeeds and you become president, you ask your surgeon general to wage a health campaign urging citizens to reduce their salt intake. Why?

5. Which type of exercise, isotonic contractions or isometric contractions, puts more of a "strain" on the heart? Explain.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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