Describe The Intrinsic Factors That Control Stroke Volume

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Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to .

1. define cardiac output and explain how it is calculated.

2. explain how autonomic nerves regulate cardiac rate and the strength of ventricular contraction.

3. explain the intrinsic regulation of stroke volume (the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart).

4. list the factors that affect the venous return of blood to the heart.

5. explain how interstitial fluid is formed and how it is returned to the capillary blood.

6. describe the conditions that may lead to edema.

7. explain how antidiuretic hormone helps to regulate blood volume, plasma osmolality, and blood pressure.

8. explain the role of aldosterone in the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure.

9. describe the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and discuss its significance in cardiovascular regulation.

10. use Poiseuille's law to explain how blood flow is regulated.

11. define total peripheral resistance and explain how vascular resistance is regulated by extrinsic control mechanisms.

12. describe the functions of nitric oxide and endothelin-1 in the paracrine regulation of blood flow.

13. describe the intrinsic mechanisms involved in the autoregulation of blood flow.

14. explain the mechanisms by which blood flow to the heart and skeletal muscles is regulated.

15. describe the changes that occur in the cardiac output and distribution of blood flow during exercise.

16. describe the cutaneous circulation and explain how circulation in the skin is regulated.

17. list the factors that regulate the arterial blood pressure.

18. describe the baroreceptor reflex and explain its significance in blood pressure regulation.

19. explain how the sounds of Korotkoff are produced and how these sounds are used to measure blood pressure.

20. explain how the pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure are calculated and discuss the significance of these measurements.

21. explain the mechanisms that contribute to and that help compensate for the conditions of hypertension, circulatory shock, and congestive heart failure.

Regulation Circulatory ShockHeart Frank Starling Law

Chapter at a Glance

Chapter at a Glance

Cardiac Output 408

Regulation of Cardiac Rate 408 Regulation of Stroke Volume 409 Frank-Starling Law of the Heart Intrinsic Control of Contraction

Strength 409 Extrinsic Control of Contractility Venous Return 411

Blood Volume 412

Exchange of Fluid Between Capillaries and Tissues 413 Causes of Edema 415 Regulation of Blood Volume by the Kidneys 416 Regulation by Antidiuretic Hormone

(ADH) 416 Regulation by Aldosterone 417 Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone

System 417 Atrial Natriuretic Peptide 418

Vascular Resistance to Blood Flow 418

Physical Laws Describing Blood Flow 419

Total Peripheral Resistance 420 Extrinsic Regulation of Blood Flow 420 Regulation by Sympathetic Nerves 420 Parasympathetic Control of Blood Flow 421 Paracrine Regulation of Blood Flow 421 Intrinsic Regulation of Blood Flow 422 Myogenic Control Mechanisms 422 Metabolic Control Mechanisms 422

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Blood Flow to the Heart and Skeletal Muscles 423

Aerobic Requirements of the Heart 423

Summary 441 Review Activities 442 Related Websites 443

Changes The Blood During Exercise

Regulation of Coronary Blood Flow 423 Regulation of Blood Flow Through Skeletal

Muscles 424 Circulatory Changes During Exercise 424

Blood Flow to the Brain and Skin 427

Cerebral Circulation 427 Myogenic Regulation 427 Metabolic Regulation 427 Cutaneous Blood Flow 427

Blood Pressure 429

Baroreceptor Reflex 430 Atrial Stretch Reflexes 432 Measurement of Blood Pressure 432 Pulse Pressure and Mean Arterial Pressure 433

Hypertension, Shock, and Congestive Heart Failure 435

Hypertension 436

Essential Hypertension 436 Dangers of Hypertension 437 Treatment of Hypertension 437 Circulatory Shock 437 Hypovolemic Shock 437 Septic Shock 438

Other Causes of Circulatory Shock 439 Congestive Heart Failure 439

Interactions 440

Summary 441 Review Activities 442 Related Websites 443

Clinical Investigation

Charlie is a college student on a biology field trip to study the ecology of the desert. Unfortunately, he gets so engrossed in his subject he wanders away from the group and gets lost. Thirty-six hours later, he is found crawling along a seldom-used one-lane road. He is very weak, and when he is brought to the hospital he has a weak, rapid pulse, low blood pressure, and cold skin. His urine output is low, and analysis reveals that it has a high osmolal-ity (concentration) but a virtual absence of sodium. Charlie is given intravenous fluid containing albumin.

What caused Charlie's symptoms and laboratory findings? Why was he given intravenous fluid containing albumin?

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Responses

  • MICHELLE
    How the human heart could compensate for flow rate changes to maintain blood pressure.?
    8 years ago
  • tiziana
    What intrinsic factors control stroke volume?
    8 years ago
  • ermias
    How frank starling law intrinsically control contractility]?
    8 years ago
  • Wesley
    What intrinsic factors describe stroke volume?
    8 years ago
  • douglas
    Is starling's law of the heart intrinsic or extrinsic?
    8 years ago
  • andreas
    Does the heart regulate cardiac output Explain.?
    8 years ago
  • Mari
    What are intrinsic factors that control stroke volume of heart?
    8 years ago
  • sesuna
    What controls stroke volume?
    7 years ago
  • EERIK
    What intrinisic factors effect stroke volume?
    7 years ago
  • helmi
    What are the intrinsic factors that control strike volume?
    7 years ago
  • tuuli pappila
    What are the intrinsic factors that control stroke volume in the cardiovascular?
    7 years ago
  • piia
    How trhe heart changes through excercise?
    7 years ago
  • nicol fairbairn
    What are the intrisic factors taht control stroke volume?
    7 years ago
  • letteria
    What is the intrinsic factor that control stoke volume?
    7 years ago
  • sven
    How can the heart affect stroke volume (intrinsic)?
    7 years ago
  • Genoveffa
    What are the three things regulate stroke volume?
    6 years ago
  • Sandra Meister
    What factors contribute to changes in stroke volume?
    5 years ago

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