TestYour Knowledge ofTerms and Facts
Match the following (1-4):
Glands are derived from a.
Cells are joined closely together in
Cells are separated by large extracellular spaces in
Blood vessels and nerves are usually located within
Most organs are composed of a. epithelial tissue.
b. muscle tissue.
c. connective tissue.
Sweat is secreted by exocrine glands. This means that a. it is produced by epithelial cells.
c. it is secreted into a duct.
d. it is produced outside the body.
7. Which of these statements about homeostasis is true?
a. The internal environment is maintained absolutely constant.
b. Negative feedback mechanisms act to correct deviations from a normal range within the internal environment.
c. Homeostasis is maintained by switching effector actions on and off.
d. All of these are true.
b. opposite in direction to the change produced by the initial stimulus.
c. unrelated to the initial stimulus.
TestYour Understanding of Concepts and Principles
3. Describe the role of antagonistic negative feedback processes in the maintenance of homeostasis.
4. Using insulin as an example, explain how the secretion of a hormone is controlled by the effects of that hormone's actions.
Describe the structure of the various epithelial membranes and explain how their structures relate to their functions.1
Compare bone, blood, and the dermis of the skin in terms of their similarities. What are the major structural differences between these tissues?
calcium concentration. According to the principles of negative feedback, an effective stimulus for parathyroid hormone secretion would be a. a fall in blood calcium.
b. a rise in blood calcium.
10. Which of these consists of dense parallel arrangements of collagen fibers?
a. skeletal muscle tissue b. nervous tissue c. tendons d. dermis of the skin
11. The act of breathing raises the blood oxygen level, lowers the blood carbon dioxide concentration, and raises the blood pH. According to the principles of negative feedback, sensors that regulate breathing should respond to a. a rise in blood oxygen.
c. a rise in blood carbon dioxide concentration.
5. Describe the steps in the development of pharmaceutical drugs and evaluate the role of animal research in this process.
6. Why is Claude Bernard considered the father of modern physiology? Why is the concept he introduced so important in physiology and medicine?
TestYour Ability to Analyze and Apply Your Knowledge
1. What do you think would happen if most of your physiological regulatory mechanisms were to operate by positive feedback rather than by negative feedback? Would life even be possible?
2. Examine figure 1.5 and determine when the compensatory physiological responses began to act, and how many minutes they required to restore the initial set point of blood glucose concentration. Comment on the importance of quantitative measurements in physiology.
3. Why are interactions between the body-fluid compartments essential for sustaining life?
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.