Test Your Knowledge of Terms and Facts
1. Which of these statements about the precentral gyrus is true?
a. It is involved in motor control.
b. It is involved in sensory 6 perception.
It is located in the frontal lobe. Both a and c are true. Both b and c are true.
In most people, the right hemisphere controls movement of a. the right side of the body primarily.
b. the left side of the body primarily.
c. both the right and left sides of the body equally.
d. the head and neck only.
3. Which of these statements about the basal nuclei is true?
a. They are located in the cerebrum.
b. They contain the caudate nucleus.
c. They are involved in motor control.
d. They are part of the extrapyramidal system.
e. All of these are true.
4. Which of these acts as a relay center for somatesthetic sensation?
5. Which of these statements about the medulla oblongata is false?
a. It contains nuclei for some cranial nerves.
b. It contains the apneustic center.
c. It contains the vasomotor center.
d. It contains ascending and descending fiber tracts.
b. is a loose arrangement of neurons with many interconnecting synapses.
e. is described correctly by all of these.
In the control of emotion and motivation, the limbic system works together with a. the pons.
b. the thalamus.
c. the hypothalamus.
d. the cerebellum.
e. the basal nuclei. Verbal ability predominates in a. the left hemisphere of right-handed people.
b. the left hemisphere of most left-handed people.
c. the right hemisphere of 97% of all people.
b. the hippocampus.
c. the cerebral peduncles.
d. the arcuate fasciculus.
e. the precentral gyrus.
For questions 10-12, match the nature of the aphasia with its cause (choices are listed under question 12).
10. Comprehension good; can speak and write, but cannot read (although can see).
11. Comprehension good; speech is slow and difficult (but motor ability is not damaged).
12. Comprehension poor; speech is fluent but meaningless.
b. the pineal gland.
c. the pituitary gland.
d. the hypothalamus.
b. auditory reflexes.
c. relaying of cutaneous information.
d. release of pituitary hormones.
The Central Nervous System
TestYour Understanding of Concepts and Principles
1. Define the term decussation and explain its significance in terms of the pyramidal motor system.1
2. Electrical stimulation of the basal nuclei or cerebellum can produce skeletal movements. Describe the pathways by which these brain regions control motor activity.
3. Define the term ablation. Give two examples of how this experimental technique has been used to learn about the function of particular brain regions.
4. Explain how "split-brain" patients have contributed to research on the function of the cerebral hemispheres. Propose some experiments that would reveal the lateralization of function in the two hemispheres. What evidence do we have that Wernicke's area may control Broca's area? What evidence do we have that the angular gyrus has input to Wernicke's area? State two reasons why researchers distinguish between short-term and long-term memory. Describe evidence showing that the hippocampus is involved in the
TestYour Ability to Analyze and Apply Your Knowledge
Fetal alcohol syndrome, produced by excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy, affects different aspects of embryonic development. Two brain regions known to be particularly damaged in this syndrome are the corpus callosum and the basal nuclei. Speculate on what effects damage to these areas may produce.
2. Recent studies suggest that medial temporal lobe activity is needed for memory retrieval. What is the difference between memory storage and retrieval, and what scientific evidence might allow them to be distinguished?
consolidation of short-term memory. After long-term memory is established, why may there be no need for hippocampal involvement? Can we be aware of a reflex action involving our skeletal muscles? Is this awareness necessary for the response? Explain, identifying the neural pathways involved in the reflex response and the conscious awareness of a stimulus.
Much has been made (particularly by left-handers) of the fact that Leonardo da Vinci was left-handed. Do you think his accomplishments are in any way related to his left-handedness? Why or why not?
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