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Check out the Links Library at www.mhhe.com/fox8 for links to sites containing resources related to the regulation of metabolism. These links are monitored to ensure current URLs.

Spermatogenesis Human Tubule Stages

Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to .

1. describe how the chromosomal content determines the sex of an embryo and how this relates to the development of testes or ovaries.

2. explain how the development of accessory sex organs and external genitalia is affected by the presence or absence of testes in the embryo.

3. describe the hormonal changes that occur during puberty, the mechanisms that may control the onset of puberty, and the secondary sex characteristics that develop during puberty.

4. explain how the secretions of FSH and LH are regulated in the male and describe the actions of these hormones on the testis.

5. describe the structure of the testis and the interaction between the interstitial Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules.

describe the stages of spermatogenesis and the functions of Sertoli cells in this process.

effects of androgens on the male accessory sex organs.

8. describe the composition of semen, explain the physiology of erection and ejaculation, and discuss the various factors that affect male fertility.

9. describe the four phases of the human sexual response.

10. describe oogenesis and the stages of follicle development through ovulation and the formation of a corpus luteum.

11. explain the hormonal interactions involved in the control of ovulation.

12. describe the changes in the secretion of ovarian sex steroids during a nonfertile cycle and explain the function and fate of the corpus luteum.

13. explain how the secretion of FSH and LH is controlled through negative and positive feedback mechanisms during a menstrual cycle.

explain how contraceptive pills prevent ovulation.

15. describe the cyclic changes that occur in the endometrium and the hormonal mechanisms that cause these changes.

16. describe the acrosomal reaction and the events that occur at fertilization, blastocyst formation, and implantation.

17. explain how menstruation and further ovulation are normally prevented during pregnancy.

18. describe the structure and functions of the placenta.

19. list the hormones secreted by the placenta and describe their actions.

20. discuss the factors that stimulate uterine contractions during labor and parturition, and explain how the onset of labor may be regulated.

21. describe the hormonal requirements for development of the mammary glands during pregnancy and explain how lactation is prevented during pregnancy.

describe the milk-ejection reflex.

Lactation Physiology Mammarg GlandMechanism Steroids

Before you begin this chapter, you may want to review these concepts from previous chapters:

DNA Synthesis and Cell Division 69

Mechanism of Steroid Hormone Action 293

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