Explain how the structure of the 8.
tubule to reabsorb salt and water.
Describe how the thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, and osmotic diuretics work. How do these substances cause 10.
Which diuretic drugs do not produce hypokalemia? How do these drugs work?
What happens to urinary bicarbonate excretion when a person hyperventilates? How might this response be helpful? Describe the location of the macula densa and explain its role in the regulation of renin secretion and in tubuloglomerular feedback. Describe how the nephron handles K+, how the urinary excretion of K+ changes under different conditions, and how this process is regulated by aldosterone.
1 Note: This question is answered in the chapter 17 Study Guide found on the Online Learning Center at www.mhhe.com/fox8.
1. The very high rates of urea transport in the region of the collecting duct in the inner medulla are due to the presence of specific urea transporters that are stimulated by ADH. Suppose you collect urine from two patients who have been deprived of water overnight. One has normally functioning kidneys, and the other has a genetic defect in the urea transporters. How would the two urine samples differ? Explain.
2. Two men are diagnosed with diabetes insipidus. One didn't have the disorder until he suffered a stroke. The other had withstood the condition all his life, and it had never responded to
Suppose a woman with a family history of polycystic kidney disease develops proteinuria. She has elevated blood creatinine levels and a reduced inulin clearance. What might these lab results indicate? Explain. You love to spend hours fishing in a float tube in a lake, where the lower half of your body is submerged and the upper half is supported by an inner tube. However, you always have to leave the lake sooner than you'd like because you produce urine at a faster than usual rate. Using your knowledge about the regulation of urine volume, propose an explanation as to why a person might produce more urine under these conditions.
5. You have an infection, and you see that the physician is about to inject you with millions of units of penicillin. What do you think will happen to your urine production as a result? Explain. In the hope of speeding your recovery, you gobble extra amounts of vitamin C. How will this affect your urine output?
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