The Leydig cells in the interstitial tissue of the testes are stimulated by LH to secrete testosterone, a potent androgen that acts to maintain the structure and function of the male accessory sex organs and to promote the development of male secondary sex characteristics. The Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testes are stimulated by FSH. The cooperative actions of FSH and testosterone are required to initiate spermatogenesis.
The testes consist of two parts, or "compartments"—the seminiferous tubules, where spermatogenesis occurs, and the interstitial tissue, which contains the testosterone-secreting Leydig cells (fig. 20.12). The seminiferous tubules account for about 90% of the weight of an adult testis. The interstitial tissue is a thin web of connective tissue (containing Leydig cells) that fills the spaces between the tubules.
With regard to gonadotropin action, the testes are strictly compartmentalized. Cellular receptor proteins for FSH are located exclusively in the seminiferous tubules, where they are confined to the Sertoli cells. LH receptor proteins are located exclusively in the interstitial Leydig cells. Secretion of testosterone by the Leydig cells is stimulated by LH but not by FSH. Spermatogenesis in the tubules is stimulated by FSH. The apparent simplicity of this compartmentation is an illusion, however, because the two compartments can interact with each other in complex ways.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.