After studying this chapter, you should be able to .

describe the general functions and 8. major components of the circulatory system.

describe the composition of blood 9. plasma and the physical characteristics and functions of the formed elements of the blood.

identify the chemical regulators of blood cell production and describe the process of erythropoiesis.

describe the ABO system of red blood cell antigens and explain the significance of the blood types.

explain how a blood clot is formed and how it is ultimately destroyed.

explain how the acid-base balance of the blood is affected by carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, and describe the roles of the lungs and kidneys in maintaining acid-base balance. 13.

describe the path of the blood through the heart and the function of the atrioventricular and semilunar valves.

describe the structures and pathways of the pulmonary and systemic circulations.

describe the structures and pathways of electrical impulse conduction in the heart.

describe the electrical activity in the sinoatrial node and explain why this tissue functions as the heart's normal pacemaker.

relate the time involved in the production of an action potential to the time involved in the contraction of myocardial cells and explain the significance of this relationship.

describe the pressure changes that occur in the ventricles during the cardiac cycle and relate these changes to the action of the valves and the flow of blood.

explain the origin of the heart sounds and state when in the cardiac cycle these sounds are produced.

14. explain how electrocardiogram waves are produced and relate these waves to other events in the cardiac cycle.

15. compare the structure of an artery and vein, and explain how the structure of each type of vessel relates to its function.

16. describe the structure of capillaries and explain the physiological significance of this structure.

17. explain how atherosclerosis may develop and comment on the significance of this condition.

18. define ischemia and discuss the possible causes of myocardial ischemia.

19. describe some common arrhythmias that can be detected with an ECG.

20. describe the components and functions of the lymphatic system.

Steps Leukopoiesis

Fox: Human Physiology, I 13. Heart and Circulation I Text I © The McGraw-Hill

Eighth Edition Companies, 2003

Components Plasma Proteins

Chapter at a Glance

Heart Sounds 382 Heart Murmurs 382

Chapter at a Glance

Functions and Components of the Circulatory System 366

Functions of the Circulatory System 366 Major Components of the Circulatory System 366

Composition of the Blood 367

Plasma 367

Plasma Proteins 368 Plasma Volume 368 The Formed Elements of Blood 368 Erythrocytes 368 Leukocytes 369 Platelets 369 Hematopoiesis 370

Regulation of Leukopoiesis 371 Regulation of Erythropoiesis 371 Red Blood Cell Antigens and Blood Typing 372 ABO System 372 Transfusion Reactions 373 Rh Factor 374 Blood Clotting 374

Functions of Platelets 374 Clotting Factors: Formation of Fibrin 374 Dissolution of Clots 375 Anticoagulants 376

Acid-Base Balance of the Blood 377

Structure of the Heart 378

Pulmonary and Systemic Circulations 379 Atrioventricular and Semilunar Valves 380

Cardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds 381

Pressure Changes During the Cardiac Cycle 381

Heart Sounds 382 Heart Murmurs 382

Electrical Activity of the Heart and the Electrocardiogram 383

Electrical Activity of the Heart 384 Pacemaker Potential 384 Myocardial Action Potential 385 Conducting Tissues of the Heart 385 Conduction of the Impulse 386 Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Heart Muscle 386 The Electrocardiogram 387

Correlation of the ECG with Heart Sounds 390

Blood Vessels 390

Arteries 390 Capillaries 392

Types of Capillaries 392 Veins 393

Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Arrhythmias 395

Atherosclerosis 395

Cholesterol and Plasma Lipoproteins 396 Ischemic Heart Disease 397 Arrhythmias Detected by the Electrocardiograph 397 Flutter and Fibrillation 398 AV Node Block 398

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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