are her symptoms typical of this disorder, and what type of treatment will the doctor most likely prescribe? Your friend Bud has the talent to be a star basketball center—if only he weren't five foot eight. Since you're a good friend, you start injecting him with growth hormone as he sleeps each night. You think this is a clever strategy, but after a time you notice that he hasn't grown an inch. Instead, his jaw and forehead seem to have

15. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is secreted by a. the anterior pituitary b. the posterior pituitary c. the placenta d. the thymus e. the pineal gland

16. What do insulin-like growth factors, neurotrophins, nitric oxide, and lymphokines have in common?

a. They are hormones.

b. They are autocrine or paracrine regulators.

c. They are neurotransmitters.

d. They all use cAMP as a second messenger.

e. They all use Ca2+ as a second messenger.

8. Suppose a person's immune system made antibodies against insulin receptor proteins. What effect might this condition have on carbohydrate and fat metabolism?

9. Explain how light affects the function of the pineal gland. What is the relationship between pineal gland function and circadian rhythms?

10. Distinguish between endocrine and autocrine/paracrine regulation. List some of these autocrine/paracrine regulators and describe their functions.

gotten disproportionately large and his hands and feet are swollen. Explain why the growth hormone didn't make Bud grow taller and why it had the effect it did. What disease state do these changes mimic?

3. You see your friend Joe for the first time in over a year. When you last saw him, he had been trying to bulk up by working out daily at the gym, but he was getting discouraged because his progress seemed so slow. Now,

1Note: This question is answered in the chapter 11 Study Guide found on the Online Learning Center at

Endocrine Glands 323

however, he's very muscular. In a frank discussion, he admits that he's been getting into trouble because he's become very aggressive. He also tells you in strict confidence, that his testes have gotten smaller and that he's been developing breasts! What might Joe be doing to cause these changes? Explain how these changes came about. Distinguish between the steroid and nonsteroid group of nuclear hormone receptors. Explain the central role of vitamin A in the actions of the nonsteroid group of receptors.

5. Suppose, in an experiment, that you incubate isolated rat testes with hCG. What would be the effect, if any, of the hCG on the testes? Explain your answer. If there was an effect, discuss its potential significance in research and clinical settings.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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