keratin (ker ai-tin) A protein that forms the principal component of the outer layer of the epidermis and of hair and nails. ketoacidosis (ke"to-a-si-do'sis) A type of metabolic acidosis resulting from the excessive production of ketone bodies, as in diabetes mellitus.
ketogenesis (ke"to-Jen' i-sis) The production of ketone bodies.
ketone (ke toin) bodies The substances derived from fatty acids via acetyl coenzyme A in the liver; namely, acetone, acetoacetic acid, and (3-hydroxybutyric acid. Ketone bodies are oxidized by skeletal muscles for energy.
ketosis (ke-to sis) An abnormal elevation in the blood concentration of ketone bodies. This condition does not necessarily produce acidosis. kilocalorie (kil'd-kal"o-re) A unit of measurement equal to 1,000 calories, which are units of heat. (A kilocalorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1°C.) In nutrition, the kilocalorie is called a big calorie (Calorie). kinase (ki'nas) Any of a class of enzymes that transfer phosphate groups to organic molecules. The activity of particular protein kinases may be promoted by hormones and other regulatory molecules. These enzymes can, in turn, phosphorylate other enzymes and thereby regulate their activities. Klinefelter's (klin fel-terz) syndrome The syndrome produced in a male by the presence of an extra X chromosome (genotype XXY). knockout mice Strains of mice in which a specific targeted gene has been inactivated by developing the mice from embryos injected with specifically mutated cells. Krebs (krebz) cycle A cyclic metabolic pathway in the matrix of mitochondria by which the acetic acid part of acetyl CoA is oxidized and substrates provided for reactions that are coupled to the formation of ATP. Kupffer (koop fer) cells Phagocytic cells lining the sinusoids of the liver that are part of the reticuloendothelial system.
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Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...