K

Low Carb Weekly Meal Plans

Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

Get Instant Access

Kainate receptors, 179 Kallikrein, 375 Kaposi's sarcoma, 458, 469 Karyotype, 76/ Kennedy, John F., 307 Keratin, 12, 41

Keratinized membrane, 12, 12t Keto acid(s), 117

metabolism of, 117-118 Ketoacidosis, 36, 616 Ketogenesis, 580, 614 Ketone(s), 30, 30/ Ketone bodies, 35-36, 36/ in lipid metabolism, 116 secretion by liver, 580 Ketonuria, 24 Ketosis, 36, 116

Kidney(s), 522-553. See also Renal entries in acid-base regulation, 548-549, 548/ active transport in, 137, 138/, 532-533 blood flow to, 543 blood pH regulation by, 377

blood vessels in, 526, 527/

blood volume regulation by, 416-418,

416/, 417/ brown fat in, 115 cortex of, 524 diffusion in, 128, 130 and electrolyte balance, 544-547 as endocrine gland, 287/ function tests for, 551-552 functions of, 524-531 glomerular filtration in, 529-531 medulla of, 524 microvilli in, 55

and rate of diffusion, 130 osmolality by region, 538/ plasma clearance in, 539-544 in plasma regulation, 19 reabsorption in, 532, 532/, 533/ of bicarbonate, 548-549, 548/ and blood volume, 416 countercurrent multiplier system and,

534-536, 535/ of glucose, 543-544 in proximal tubule, 532-534, 533/ of salt, 417, 532-538 vs. secretion, 539-540, 540/ of water, 532-538 structure of, 524-531, 525/ microscopic, 526-528 Kidney disease, 551-552

polycystic, 528 Kidney stones, 524 Killer (cytotoxic) T lymphocytes, 458 action of, 458, 458/, 460-462, 463/ activation of, 460-461 apoptosis of, 72 autoreactive, 466 coreceptors on, 461, 461/ functions of, 458 and tumors, 468, 468/ viruses and, 461^62, 462/ Kilocalories, 94, 598, 599/ Kinase(s), 88 cyclin-dependent, 71 diseases associated with abnormal concentrations of, 88/ enzyme activation by, 90 in hormone action, 295, 295/, 295/,

296-298 in smooth muscles, 356 in synapses, 169 Kinetochore, 74 Kinocilium, 251, 252/ Klinefelter's syndrome, 636 Knee-jerk reflex, 350, 351/ Knockout mice, 71-72 Knowledge of Terms and Facts Questions, answers to, 687 Korotkoff sounds in blood pressure measurement, 433, 434/ first, 433 last, 433

Korsakoff's syndrome, and amnesia, 201 Krebs cycle, 109-110, 109/, 110/, 112 Krebs, Hans, 7/, 109 Kupffer cells, 447, 575 Kwashiorkor, 622

L chains, 453

Labia majora, 637, 655, 655f Labia minora, 655, 655f Labioscrotal swellings, 637 Labor, 674-676, 675f Labyrinth, membranous, 251, 252f Lacrimal (tear) glands, 14 Lactase, 571, 571 t, 588t Lactate. See Lactic acid Lactate threshold, 346-347 Lactation, 677-678, 677f, 678f inhibition of, during pregnancy, 290 Lacteal, central, 570 Lactic acid (lactate), 31 f as energy source, 119, 119t fermentation, 106 in gluconeogenesis, 118 metabolic pathway, 105-106, 106f threshold, 343, 513-514 Lactic acid (lactate) dehydrogenase (LDH) in Cori cycle, 108 diseases associated with abnormal concentrations of, 86t function of, 88

myocardial ischemia and, 397 reaction catalyzed by, 88t, 108 Lactiferous duct, 677 Lactose, 32, 588

Lactose intolerance, 93t, 571, 574 Lacunae, 16

LAK. See Lymphokine-activated killer

Lamellated (pacinian) corpuscles, 18, 19/,

243, 244, 245t Lamina propria, 562, 562/, 570 Laminar flow, 432-433 Landsteiner, Karl, It, 450 Langerhans, Islets of. See Islets of

Langerhans Langerhans cells, 459 Langley, John, 7t Language. See also Speech cerebral area related to, 199 recovery after damage to, 200 Laplace, law of, 486, 486/ Large intestine, 572-574, 574/ absorption in, 572-573 electrolyte, 574 fluid, 574 bacteria in, 572-574 endocrine functions of, 583t in gastrointestinal tract, 561, 561/ regulation of, 585-586

endocrine, 583t structure of, 572, 573/ Laron dwarfism, 622 Larynx, 481, 483/ Lasix. See Furosemide Latch state, 357 Law(s)

all-or-none, of action potentials, 163-164 of complementary base pairing, 42, 70/ of mass action, 91, 510 of specific nerve energies, 242-243 of thermodynamics, first and second, 93-94 LDH. See Lactic acid (lactate) dehydrogenase LDLs. See Low-density lipoproteins Leader sequence, 67 Learning, neural stem cells and, 203 Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, 58 Lecithin, 36, 36/

excretion of, 576t Lemniscus, medial, 245 Length-tension relationship, in muscle contraction, 341-342, 342/ Lens, 262, 262t ciliary muscle and, 265, 266/ Lentiform nucleus, 197 Leptin, 181, 606, 607, 607/, 609 Leucine, as essential amino acid, 117t Leukemia, 369

Leukocytes. See White blood cells Leukocytosis, 369 Leukopenia, 369 Leukopoiesis, 371

regulation of, 371 Leukotrienes, 317, 472

formation of, 317/ Levator muscles, 326t Levi-Montalcini, Rita, 7t Levodopa. See L-Dopa Leydig cells, 315, 636, 644, 646 LH. See Luteinizing hormone LHRH. See Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone Lidocaine, as local anesthetic, 162 Lieberkühn, crypts of. See Intestinal crypts Life cycle, human, 634/ Ligand(s) and enzyme activation, 90 FAS, 647

in neurotransmission, 169, 171-172 Ligand-binding domain, of hormone receptors, 292

Light in eye, 263, 264-265, 268-270, 271/ ultraviolet, 262 visible, 261-262 Limb, phantom, 246 Limbic system, 200-201, 200/ and autonomic nervous system, 236 components of, 200 in emotion, 200-201 Linear acceleration, 251 Linoleic acid, 35/, 600 Linolenic acid, 600 Lipase in lipolysis, 115 pancreatic, 582, 582t, 588t, 589

pH optimum of, 90t reactions catalyzed by, 614 Lipid(s), 34—38. See also Cholesterol; Fat(s); Phospholipids; Triglyceride(s) absorption of, 590, 591 f in blood, transport of, 590-591, 591 t vs. carbohydrates, 31-32 digestion of, 589, 590f metabolism of, 114—116, 114f inborn errors in, 93t interconversion in, 119f by liver, 577t as neurotransmitters, 180t in plasma membrane, 51 Lipogenesis, 115, 580 Lipolysis, 115, 312, 614 Lipophilic hormones, 289

receptors for, 292 Lipoprotein(s), 40, 41 t. See also Cholesterol; Phospholipids and atherosclerosis, 591 characteristics of, 591 t high-density, 396, 591, 591 t low-density, 396, 591, 591t very-low-density, 591, 591 t Lipoprotein lipase, 590-591 Lipoxygenase, 317 L-isomers, 31

Lithotripsy, shock-wave, 524

extracorporeal, 580 Liver, 575-580. See also Hepatic entries as accessory digestive organ, 561, 561 f ammonia in, 117

disorders of, lactate dehydrogenase concentrations and, 88t endocrine secretion in, 287t endoplasmic reticulum of, 59 energy storage in, 115 enterohepatic circulation in, 576, 576f, 576t enzyme activation in, 90 exocrine secretion in, 14 functions of, 577-580, 577t lobules of, 575-576, 576f and low-density lipoproteins, 396 metabolism in of amino acids, 117 and blood glucose secretion, 107/ 108 Cori cycle in, 108 energy source for, 119t peroxisomes in, 57 stem cells in, 370-371 structure of, 575-576, 575f Lobe(s) of cerebral cortex frontal, 193, 194/ 194t inferior, 202 insula, 193, 194t occipital, 193, 194/ 194t parietal, 193, 194f, 194t temporal, 193, 194/ 194t inferior, 202 medial, 201 of mammary glands, 677 Lobules, of mammary glands, 677 Local anesthetics, and action potentials, 162 Lock-and-key model of enzyme activity,

86, 87f Loewi, Otto, It, 167 Long-term memory, 201, 202 Long-term potentiation (LTP), 182 glutamate receptors in, 202, 203f and memory, 202-203 Loop of Henle, 526 ascending limb of, 526, 534, 534f descending limb of, 526, 534, 534f Loose connective tissue, 14, 16 Lou Gehrig's disease. See Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), 396, 591, 591 t oxidized, 396 LSD, serotonin and, 177 LTP. See Long-term potentiation Lung(s). See also Pulmonary entries; Respiration capacities of, 489^91, 4911

vital, 489, 491 compliance of, 485 disorders of, 491-493 obstructive, 491 restrictive, 491 elasticity of, 485, 488 fluid in, 486

function tests for, 489-491 gas exchange in, 493-499 physical properties of, 483, 485-487

pressure in, 485, 485/, 486, 486/ surface tension in, 485, 486, 486/ volume, 485, 488/, 491/ expiratory reserve, 489-491 inspiratory reserve, 489-491 residual, 487 tests of, 489^91, 490/ tidal, 489-491 total minute, 491 Lupus erythematosus, systemic, 470/, 471 Luteal phase, of menstrual cycle, 661, 664/ Luteinizing hormone (LH), 288/, 300, 300/, 640-641, 641/, 658 in male reproductive system, 644 in menstrual cycle, 660-661 target organs of, 302/ Luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, 660 Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

(LHRH), 180/, 640 Luteotropin. See Luteinizing hormone Luvox, 177 Lymph, 367, 399 Lymph ducts, 399-400, 400/ Lymph nodes, 367, 400, 400/, 401/ axillary, 401/ cervical, 401/ inguinal, 401/ mesenteric, 401/ as secondary lymphoid organ, 451 Lymphatic capillaries, 399, 400/, 415 Lymphatic ducts, right, 400, 401/ Lymphatic system, 399-400 circulation in, 367 circulatory system and, 400, 400/ components of, 366, 399-400 functions of, 399 Lymphatic vessels, 367 and edema, 415, 415/ Lymphoblasts, 371

Lymphocytes, 369, 370/, 370/, 450. See also B lymphocytes; T lymphocytes destruction of, 462 movement of, 451 natural killer, 469 production of, 400 structure of, 369 in thymus formation, 450 Lymphoid organs, 400 in immunity, 450-451 primary, 450 secondary, 451 Lymphoid tissue, 371 Lymphokine(s), 316, 459 Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK)

cells, 469 Lymphoma, Burkitt's, 469 Lysine, as essential amino acid, 117/ Lysolecithin, 589, 590 Lysosome(s), 51/, 56-58 function of, 50/, 56-57 primary, 57, 57/ secondary, 57, 57/ structure of, 50/, 57

M lines, 331, 332/ M phase of cell cycle, 72 Macleod, John, 7/ Macrophages, 446, 448/, 452 interactions with T lymphocytes,

460-462, 463/ viruses and, 461 Macula, 253 Macula densa, 531, 546 Macula lutea, 272

Magnesium, recommended dietary allowance for, 601 /

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 194, 195/, 196/ functional, 194, 196/, 201, 202 Magnetoencephalogram, 196/ Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), 460 Malleus, 255

Malnutrition, 607-608, 622 Maltase, 571 /, 588/ Maltose, 32

production of, 588, 588/ Maltriose, production of, 588, 588/ Mammary ducts, 677 Mammary glands, 676/, 677 hormonal control of, 677, 677/ lymphatics of, 401/

Was this article helpful?

0 0
The Ketosis Plan Diet

The Ketosis Plan Diet

Top Low Carb Internet Guru Speaks Out. An Open Letter To Anyone Who Wants To Lose Up To 20 Pounds In 30 Days The 'Low Carb' Way. 30-Day Low Carb Diet 'Ketosis Plan' has already helped scores of people lose their excess pounds and inches faster and easier than they ever thought possible. Why not find out what 30-Day Low Carb Diet 'Ketosis Plan' can do for you by trying it out for yourself.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment