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progesterone. In addition, it secretes a number of polypeptide and protein hormones that are similar to some hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary. These hormones include human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is similar to LH, and so-matomammotropin, which is similar in action to both growth hormone and prolactin. The physiology of the placenta and other aspects of reproductive endocrinology are considered in chapter 20.

Test Yourself Before You Continue

1. Describe the structure of the endocrine pancreas. Which cells secrete insulin and which secrete glucagon?

2. Describe how insulin and glucagon secretion are affected by eating and by fasting and explain the actions of these two hormones.

3. Describe the location of the pineal gland and discuss the possible functions of melatonin.

4. Describe the location and function of the thymus.

5. Explain how the gonadal and placental hormones are categorized and list the hormones secreted by each gland.

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