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remover). A rapid breakdown of fat, as may occur during strict low-carbohydrate diets and in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, results in elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood. This is a condition called ketosis. If there are sufficient amounts of ketone bodies in the blood to lower the blood pH, the condition is called ketoacidosis. Severe ketoacidosis, which may occur in diabetes mellitus, can lead to coma and death.

Clinical Investigation Clues

Remember that George had ketone bodies in his urine (ketonuria).

Why does George have ketonuria?

What benefit might he get from the rise in his blood ketone bodies?

C-OH

Acetoacetic Acetone acid

■ Figure 2.19 Ketone bodies. Acetoacetic acid, an acidic ketone body, can spontaneously decarboxylate (lose carbon dioxide) to form acetone. Acetone is a volatile ketone body that escapes in the exhaled breath, thereby lending a "fruity" smell to the breath of people with ketosis (elevated blood ketone bodies).

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Good Carb Diet

Good Carb Diet

WHAT IT IS A three-phase plan that has been likened to the low-carbohydrate Atkins program because during the first two weeks, South Beach eliminates most carbs, including bread, pasta, potatoes, fruit and most dairy products. In PHASE 2, healthy carbs, including most fruits, whole grains and dairy products are gradually reintroduced, but processed carbs such as bagels, cookies, cornflakes, regular pasta and rice cakes remain on the list of foods to avoid or eat rarely.

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