glucose 6-phosphate, it cannot leak out of the cell. Similarly, glucose that enters the cell from the blood is "trapped" within the cell by conversion to glucose 6-phosphate. Skeletal muscles, which have large amounts of glycogen, can generate glucose 6-phosphate for their own glycolytic needs, but they cannot secrete glucose into the blood because they lack the ability to remove the phosphate group.
Unlike skeletal muscles, the liver contains an enzyme— known as glucose 6-phosphatase—that can remove the phosphate groups and produce free glucose (fig. 5.4). This free glucose can then be transported through the cell membrane. The liver, then, can secrete glucose into the blood, whereas skeletal muscles cannot. Liver glycogen can thus supply blood glucose for use by other organs, including exercising skeletal muscles that may have depleted much of their own stored glycogen during exercise.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.