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diffusion of ions through the neuron plasma membrane. Interestingly, the action of some hormones (such as insulin) is accompanied by ion diffusion and electrical changes in the target cells, so changes in membrane potential are not unique to the nervous system. Also, most nerve fibers stimulate the cells they innervate through the release of a chemical neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters do not travel in the blood as do hormones; instead, they diffuse across a narrow synaptic cleft to the membrane of the postsynaptic cell. In other respects, however, the actions of neurotransmitters are very similar to the actions of hormones.

Indeed, many polypeptide hormones, including those secreted by the pituitary gland and by the digestive tract, have been discovered in the brain. In certain locations in the brain, some of these compounds are produced and secreted as hormones. In other brain locations, some of these compounds apparently serve as neurotransmitters. The discovery of polypeptide hormones in unicellular organisms, which of course lack a nervous and endocrine system, suggests that these regulatory molecules appeared early in evolution and were incorporated into the function of nervous and endocrine tissue as these systems evolved. This fascinating theory would help to explain, for example, why insulin, a polypeptide hormone produced in the pancreas of vertebrates, is found in neurons of invertebrates (which lack a distinct endocrine system).

Regardless of whether a particular chemical is acting as a neurotransmitter or as a hormone, in order for it to function in physiological regulation: (1) target cells must have specific receptor proteins that combine with the regulatory molecule; (2) the combination of the regulatory molecule with its receptor proteins must cause a specific sequence of changes in the target cells; and (3) there must be a mechanism to quickly turn off the action of the regulator. This mechanism, which involves rapid removal and/or chemical inactivation of the regulator molecules, is essential because without an "off-switch" physiological control would be impossible.

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