Approximately 20% of all adults in the United States have hypertension—blood pressure in excess of the normal range for a person's age and sex. Hypertension that is a result of (secondary to) known disease processes is logically called secondary hypertension. Of the hypertensive population, secondary hypertension accounts for only about 5%. Hypertension that is the result of complex and poorly understood processes is not so logically called primary, or essential, hypertension. Hypertension in adults is defined by a systolic pressure greater than 140 mmHg and/or a diastolic pressure greater than 90 mmHg (table 14.8).

Diseases of the kidneys and arteriosclerosis of the renal arteries can cause secondary hypertension because of high blood volume. More commonly, the reduction of renal blood flow can raise blood pressure by stimulating the secretion of vasoactive chemicals from the kidneys. Experiments in which the renal artery is pinched, for example, produce hypertension that is associated (at least initially) with elevated renin secretion. These and other causes of secondary hypertension are summarized in table 14.9.

Reducing Blood Pressure Naturally

Reducing Blood Pressure Naturally

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