Per Links Establish Connections

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Interactions: HPer Links -

Interactions page can be found at the end of each chapter or group of chapters relating to a particular body system, and also at the ends of chapters 3,5, and 6. These resource pages list the many ways a major concept applies to the study of different body systems, and the ways that a given system interacts with other body systems. Each application or interaction includes a page reference to related material in the textbook.

The term HPer Links is a hybrid of "hyperlinks" and the initials of "Human Physiology." On the Internet, a hyperlink is a reference that you can click with a mouse to jump from one part of a document or web page to another. Students can use the cross-references offered on the Interactions pages in a similar way to find interrelated topics in the textbook.

INTERACTIONS

HPer Links of Metabolism Concepts to the Body Systems

Integumentary System

• The skin synthesizes vitamin D from a derivative of cholesterol (p. 625)

• The metabolic rate of the skin varies greatly, depending upon ambient temperature (p. 428)

Nervous System

• The aerobic respiration of glucose serves most of the energy needs of the brain (p. 119)

• Regions of the brain with a faster metabolic rate, resulting from increased brain activity, receive a more abundant blood supply than regions with a slower metabolic rate (p.427)

Endocrine System

• Hormones that bind to receptors in the plasma membrane of their target cells activate enzymes in the target cell cytoplasm (p. 294)

• Hormones that bind to nuclear receptors in their target cells alter the target cell metabolism by regulating gene expression (p. 292)

• Hormonal secretions from adipose cells regulate hunger and metabolism . .(p. 606)

• Anabolism and catabolism are regulated by a number of hormones (p. 609)

Insulin stimulates the synthesis of glycogen and fat (p. 611)

• The adrenal hormones stimulate the breakdown of glycogen, fat, and protein (p. 619)

• Thyroxine stimulates the production of a protein that uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. This helps to increase the body's metabolic rate (p. 620)

Growth hormone stimulates protein synthesis (p. 621)

Muscular System

• The intensity of exercise that can be performed aerobically depends on a person's maximal oxygen uptake and lactate threshold (p. 343)

The body consumes extra oxygen for a period of time after exercise has ceased. This extra oxygen is used to repay the oxygen debt incurred during exercise (p. 344)

Glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis by the liver help to supply glucose for exercising muscles (p. 343)

Trained athletes obtain a higher proportion of skeletal muscle energy from the aerobic respiration of fatty acids than do nonathletes (p. 346)

Muscle fatigue is associated with anaerobic respiration and the production of lactic acid (p. 346)

The proportion of energy derived from carbohydrates or lipids by exercising skeletal muscles depends on the intensity of the exercise (p. 343)

Circulatory System

• Metabolic acidosis may result from excessive production of either ketone bodies or lactic acid (p.377)

• The metabolic rate of skeletal muscles determines the degree of blood vessel dilation, and thus the rate of blood flow to the organ (p. 424)

• Atherosclerosis of coronary arteries can force a region of the heart to metabolize anaerobically and produce lactic acid. This is associated with angina pectoris .(p. 397)

Respiratory System

• Ventilation oxygenates the blood going to the cells for aerobic cell respiration and removes the carbon dioxide produced by the cells (p. 480)

• Breathing is regulated primarily by the effects of carbon dioxide produced by aerobic cell respiration (p. 500)

Urinary System

• The kidneys eliminate urea and other waste products of metabolism from the blood plasma (p. 539)

Digestive System

• The liver contains enzymes needed for many metabolic reactions involved in regulating the blood glucose and lipid concentrations (p. 579)

• The pancreas produces many enzymes needed for the digestion of food in the small intestine (p. 582)

• The digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins provides the body with the substrates used in cell metabolism (p. 587)

• Vitamins A and D help to regulate metabolism through the activation of nuclear receptors, which bind to regions of DNA (p. 601)

Reproductive System

• The sperm do not contribute mitochondria to the fertilized oocyte (p. 58)

• The endometrium contains glycogen that nourishes the developing embryo .(p. 663)

Fox: Human Physiology, I Front Matter I Preface I I © The McGraw-Hill

Eighth Edition Companies, 2003

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