Hormones That Use Second Messengers

Hormones that are catecholamines (epinephrine and norepineph-rine), polypeptides, and glycoproteins cannot pass through the lipid barrier of the target cell's plasma membrane. Although some of these hormones may enter the cell by pinocytosis, most of their effects result from their binding to receptor proteins on the outer surface of the target cell membrane. Since they exert their effects without entering the target cells, the actions of these hormones must be mediated by other molecules within the target cells. If you think of hormones as "messengers" from the endocrine glands, the intracellular mediators of the hormone's action can be called second messengers. (The concept of second messengers was introduced in connection with synaptic transmission in chapter 7.) Second messengers are thus a component of signal-transduction mechanisms, since extracellular signals (hormones) are transduced into intracellular signals (second messengers).

Dimerization

TR receptor

— (for triiodothyronine)

TR receptor

— (for triiodothyronine)

9-cis-Retinoic acid

Dimerization

9-cis-Retinoic acid

Synaptic Transmission Retinoic Acid

Triiodothyronine

Hormone- Genetic response transcription element I

Triiodothyronine

Hormone- Genetic response transcription element I

VmRNA

■ Figure 11.7 The receptor for triiodothyronine (T3). The nuclear receptor protein for T3 forms a dimer with the receptor protein for 9-cis-retinoic acid, a derivative of vitamin A. This occurs when each binds to its ligand and to the hormone-response element of DNA. Thus, 9-cis-retinoic acid is required for the action of T3. The heterodimer formed on the DNA stimulates genetic transcription.

When these hormones bind to membrane receptor proteins, they must activate specific proteins in the plasma membrane in order to produce the second messengers required to exert their effects. On the basis of the membrane enzyme activated, we can distinguish second-messenger systems that involve the activation of (1) adenylate cyclase, (2) phospholipase C, and (3) tyrosine kinase.

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  • odo
    Which hormone uses a second messenger mechanism?
    8 years ago
  • aldo
    What are the second messengers through which hormones exert actions?
    8 years ago
  • Mario
    What hormone exert their effect through the use of second messengers?
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  • samuel
    Which harmone uses Phospholipase C as second messenger?
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  • uwe
    Why are hormonal second messengers needed?
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  • mathias
    Which hormones must use a messanger?
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  • alida
    Does triiodothyronine need a second messenger?
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    Why does triiodothyronine need a second messenger system?
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    Does testosterone use second messenger?
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    Does testosterone use second messengers?
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    Does estrogen use a second messenger?
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    What are second messengers in physiology?
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    Does thyroxine require a second messenger?
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    What type of hormone structure needs a secondary messenger?
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    What is the second massanger for ADH?
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    Do all hormones require second messengers?
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    What type of molecules/hormones use the 2nd messenger system?
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  • Mathilda
    Which hormone uses a second messenger mechanism testosterone?
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    Why do catecholamines require second messengers?
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    Which hormones does not need asecond messenger?
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    What secondary messenger does throxine uses?
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  • flavus
    How do hormones act as mediators of second Messenger system?
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  • CLAIRE
    Does gibberelin use the release of a second messenger?
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    When does a hormone use sexeond messenger and first?
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    Why protein hormone require secondary messenger?
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  • idris
    Which hormone does nt reqsuirw swcndary msngr?
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    Why protien hormone requries secondary messenger?
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    Why protein hormones require a second messenger because?
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    Which hormone does not use CAMP as a second messenger?
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    Which hormones dont required second messenger?
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    Which of the following hormones acts via a second messenger system?
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    WHICH GROUP OF HORMONES USED SECOND MESSANGER?
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    Does norepinephrine use a secondary messenger?
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  • COSIMO
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  • MARTHA ABRAHAM
    Does cortisol use camp?
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    What type of hormone is most likely to involve a g protein and second messenger?
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    Which hormone does not require second messenger during action?
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    Which hormone uses phospholipase c as a secondary messenger?
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  • kane wood
    Why does hydrophilic hormones go through 2nd messenger?
    7 months ago
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    How is the second messenger system of a protein hormone differ from the action of a steriod hormone?
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    Is androsterone a second messenger?
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    Which hormone requires a second messenger in order to cause chane in a cell?
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    Is adrenaline a second messenger?
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    Why proteinbased hormones use second messengers to carry out their actions.?
    5 months ago
  • ahti
    What type of hormone requires the use of a second messenger system in order to stimulate a cell?
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    Which type of hormone work through a second messenger?
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  • kisanet michael
    Why must the second messenger system be used by amino acid based hormones?
    4 months ago
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    What type of hormone uses a second messenger camp?
    3 months ago
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    Does cortisol use a secondary messnger?
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    What type of hormones utilize the 2nd messenger system and why?
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    What type of hormones utilize the 2nd messenger system and why_?
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    How do the second messenger systems for insulin and aldosterone work?
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    Is estrogen a second messenger system?
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    Does progesterone receptor require second messenger?
    25 days ago
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    How do hormones use second messanger receptors easy?
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