Glycolysis and the Lactic Acid Pathway

In cellular respiration, energy is released by the stepwise breakdown of glucose and other molecules, and some of this energy is used to produce ATP The complete combustion of glucose requires the presence of oxygen and yields thirty ATP for each molecule of glucose. However, some energy can be obtained in the absence of oxygen by the pathway that leads to the production of lactic acid. This process results in a net gain of two ATP per glucose.

All of the reactions in the body that involve energy transformation are collectively termed metabolism. Metabolism may be divided into two categories: anabolism and catabolism. Cata-bolic reactions release energy, usually by the breakdown of larger organic molecules into smaller molecules. Anabolic reactions require the input of energy and include the synthesis of large energy-storage molecules, including glycogen, fat, and protein.

The catabolic reactions that break down glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids serve as the primary sources of energy for the synthesis of ATP. For example, this means that some of the chemical-bond energy in glucose is transferred to the chemical-bond energy in ATP. Since energy transfers can never be 100% efficient (according to the second law of thermodynamics), some of the chemical-bond energy from glucose is lost as heat.

This energy transfer involves oxidation-reduction reactions. As explained in chapter 4, oxidation of a molecule occurs when the molecule loses electrons. This must be coupled to the reduction of another atom or molecule, which accepts the electrons. In the breakdown of glucose and other molecules for energy, some of the electrons initially present in these molecules are transferred to intermediate carriers and then to a final electron acceptor. When a molecule is completely broken down to carbon dioxide and water within an animal cell, the final electron acceptor is always an atom of oxygen. Because of the involvement of oxygen, the metabolic pathway that converts molecules such as glucose or fatty acid to carbon dioxide and water (transferring some of the energy to ATP) is called aerobic

Chapter Five cell respiration. The oxygen for this process is obtained from the blood. The blood, in turn, obtains oxygen from air in the lungs through the process of breathing, or ventilation, as described in chapter 16. Ventilation also serves the important function of eliminating the carbon dioxide produced by aerobic cell respiration.

Unlike the process of burning, or combustion, which quickly releases the energy content of molecules as heat (and which can be measured as kilocalories—see chapter 4), the conversion of glucose to carbon dioxide and water within the cells occurs in small, enzymatically catalyzed steps. Oxygen is used only at the last step. Since a small amount of the chemical-bond energy of glucose is released at early steps in the metabolic pathway, some tissue cells can obtain energy for ATP production in the temporary absence of oxygen. This process is described in the next two sections.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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