glycogen (gli'ko-jen) A polysaccharide of glucose— also called animal starch—produced primarily in the liver and skeletal muscles. Similar to plant starch in composition, glycogen contains more highly branched chains of glucose subunits than does plant starch. glycogenesis (gli" ko-jen'i-sis) The formation of glycogen from glucose. glycogenolysis (gli"ko-je-nol'i-sis) The hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate, which can be converted to glucose-6-phosphate. The glucose-6-phosphate then may be oxidized via glycolysis or (in the liver) converted to free glucose. glycolysis (gli"kol'i-sis) The metabolic pathway that converts glucose to pyruvic acid. The final products are two molecules of pyruvic acid and two molecules of reduced NAD, with a net gain of two ATP molecules. In anaerobic respiration, the reduced NAD is oxidized by the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid. In aerobic respiration, pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle in mitochondria, and reduced NAD is ultimately oxidized by oxygen to yield water.

glycosuria (gU'kd-soor'e-a) The excretion of an abnormal amount of glucose in the urine (urine normally contains only trace amounts of glucose).

Golgi (gol je) apparatus A network of stacked, flattened membranous sacs within the cytoplasm of cells. Its major function is to concentrate and package proteins within vesicles that bud off from it. Golgi tendon organ A tension receptor in the tendons of muscles that becomes activated by the pull exerted by a muscle on its tendons; also called a neurotendinous receptor. gonad (go'nad) A collective term for testes and ovaries.

gonadotropic (go"nad-o-trop' ik) hormones

Hormones of the anterior pituitary that stimulate gonadal function—the formation of gametes and secretion of sex steroids. The two gonadotropins are FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone), which are essentially the same in males and females.

G-protein An association of three membrane-

associated protein subunits, designated alpha, beta, and gamma, that is regulated by guanosine nucleotides (GDP and GTP). The G-protein subunits dissociate in response to a membrane signal and, in turn, activate other proteins in the cell. graafian (graf e-an) follicle A mature ovarian follicle, containing a single fluid-filled cavity, with the ovum located toward one side of the follicle and perched on top of a hill of granulosa cells. granular leukocytes (loo' ko-sTts) Leukocytes with granules in the cytoplasm. On the basis of the staining properties of the granules, these cells are of three types: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Graves' disease A hyperthyroid condition believed to be caused by excessive stimulation of the thyroid gland by autoantibodies. It is associated with exophthalmos (bulging eyes), high pulse rate, high metabolic rate, and other symptoms of hyperthyroidism. gray matter The part of the central nervous system that contains neuron cell bodies and dendrites but few myelinated axons. It forms the cortex of the cerebrum, cerebral nuclei, and the central region of the spinal cord.

growth hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates growth of the skeleton and soft tissues during the growing years and that influences the metabolism of protein, carbohydrate, and fat throughout life. gustducins (gus-doo'sinz) The G-proteins involved in the sense of taste, particularly of sweet and bitter tastes.

gyrus (ji'rus) A fold or convolution in the cerebrum.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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