Most of the fluid and electrolytes in the lumen of the GI tract are absorbed by the small intestine. Although a person may drink only about 1.5 L of water per day, the small intestine receives 7 to 9 L per day as a result of the fluid secreted into the GI tract by the salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. The small intestine absorbs most of this fluid and passes 1.5 to 2.0 L of fluid per day to the large intestine. The large intestine absorbs about 90% of this remaining volume, leaving less than 200 ml of fluid to be excreted in the feces.
Absorption of water in the intestine occurs passively as a result of the osmotic gradient created by the active transport of ions. The epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa are joined together much like those of the kidney tubules and, like the kidney tubules, contain Na+/K+ pumps in the basolateral membrane. The analogy with kidney tubules is emphasized by the observation that aldosterone, which stimulates salt and water reabsorption in the renal tubules, also appears to stimulate salt and water absorption in the ileum.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.