Effects of Blood PCO2 and pH on Ventilation

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Chemoreceptor input to the brain stem modifies the rate and depth of breathing so that, under normal conditions, arterial PCo2, pH, and Po2 remain relatively constant. If hypoventilation (inadequate ventilation) occurs, PCO2 quickly rises and pH falls. The fall in pH is due to the fact that carbon dioxide can combine

Carotid sinus

Common carotid artery

Carotid sinus

Common carotid artery

Physiology Heart Vagus Carotid Sinus

—Sensory nerve fibers

(in glossopharyngeal nerve)

Carotid body

Sensory nerve fibers (in vagus nerve)

Aortic bodies

Heart

Aorta

—Sensory nerve fibers

(in glossopharyngeal nerve)

Carotid body

Sensory nerve fibers (in vagus nerve)

Aortic bodies

Aorta

Heart

■ Figure 16.26 Sensory input from the aortic and carotid bodies.

The peripheral chemoreceptors (aortic and carotid bodies) regulate the brain stem respiratory centers by means of sensory nerve stimulation.

with water to form carbonic acid, which, as a weak acid, can release H+ into the solution. This is shown in these equations:

The oxygen content of the blood decreases much more slowly because of the large "reservoir" of oxygen attached to hemoglobin. During hyperventilation, conversely, blood PCO2 quickly falls and pH rises because of the excessive elimination of carbonic acid. The oxygen content of blood, on the other hand, is not significantly increased by hyperventilation (hemoglobin in arterial blood is 97% saturated with oxygen during normal ventilation).

Hyperventilation Blood

Chemoreceptors

Aortic and carotid bodies

Chemoreceptors

Medulla oblongata

Chemoreceptors

Aortic and carotid bodies

Chemoreceptors

Medulla oblongata

-Spinal cord

Motoneurons to respiratory muscles

■ Figure 16.27 The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system. The feedback effects of pulmonary stretch receptors and "irritant" receptors on the control of breathing are not shown in this flowchart.

For the reasons just stated, the blood PCo2 and pH are more immediately affected by changes in ventilation than is the oxygen content. Indeed, changes in PCo2 provide a sensitive index of ventilation, as shown in figure 16.28. In view of these facts, it is not surprising that changes in PCo2 provide the most potent stimulus for the reflex control of ventilation. Ventilation, in other words, is adjusted to maintain a constant Pœ2; proper oxygenation of the blood occurs naturally as a side product of this reflex control.

The rate and depth of ventilation are normally adjusted to maintain an arterial PCO2 of 40 mmHg. Hypoventilation causes a rise in PCO2—a condition called hypercapnia. Hyperventilation, conversely, results in hypocapnia. Chemoreceptor regulation of breath figure 16.29.

tion of breathing in response to changes in PCO2 is illustrated in

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Responses

  • Magnus
    What is blood ph with pco2 78?
    8 years ago
  • john jones
    How is ventilation linked to blood ph via carbonic acid ventilation depth?
    8 years ago
  • pansy
    HOw PACO2 affect body?
    8 years ago
  • Folco Took-Brandybuck
    What reflex regulates normal ventilation?
    8 years ago
  • Gorbadoc Gammidge
    What effects does hyperventalation have on pco2 and blood ph?
    8 years ago
  • teuvo
    How regulation of respiration in response to changes blood pco2?
    8 years ago
  • giselda
    What are the physiological effects in PCO2, PO2 and PH levels?
    8 years ago
  • jessika
    How do PCO2 and PO2 effect PH?
    7 years ago
  • Priscilla
    How ventilation affects blood pH.?
    7 years ago
  • georgia
    What effect on ventilation po2?
    7 years ago
  • polo zaragamba
    How is ventilation regulated by arterial Pco2 Po2 and pH?
    7 years ago
  • Pasqualina
    What is the EFFECT OF VENTILATION RATE ON pCO2?
    7 years ago
  • Jessika
    How would acidic pH of blood effect ventilation?
    7 years ago
  • Dorothy
    How does the level of PCO2 in the blood affect the blood pH level?
    7 years ago
  • Preston
    How is ventilation controlled by arterial PCO2 and pH?
    6 years ago
  • zak
    Which are chemoreceptors affect the oxigen and Pco2?
    5 years ago
  • KIROS SEMHAR
    How to control PCO2 level in ventulator patients?
    5 years ago
  • giacinto
    How is homeostasis of pco2 ,po2 and ph maintained?
    5 years ago
  • sm headstrong
    How to changes in ph affect rate and depth of ventilation?
    5 years ago
  • thelma
    How does ventiallation change with PCO2?
    5 years ago
  • QUINN
    What is normal Pco2 on ventilator?
    4 years ago
  • ulrike m
    What is effect of pco2 on human body?
    4 years ago
  • HARRIET
    How we can control pco2 in human body?
    4 years ago
  • dinodas
    How does high pCO2 affect ventilation?
    4 years ago
  • allie
    What would be the effect on ventilatory response of changing pH?
    4 years ago
  • lucas muller
    How does hypoventilation affect blood gasses pco2 and po2 and ph?
    4 years ago
  • Bowman
    What affect does hyperventilating have on blood pO2 levels?
    4 years ago
  • faye mckenzie
    What is the effect of exercise on pH BLOod levls and PO2 &PCO2?
    4 years ago
  • tove
    How ventilation is regulated and how blood ph and pCO2 affect it?
    4 years ago
  • afwerki
    What affects ph levels more po2 or pco2?
    4 years ago
  • Johan
    How blood adjust ph during ventilation?
    4 years ago
  • mia mitchell
    What is the nomenclature of pco2 and po2?
    4 years ago
  • richard
    Does Po2 or Pco2 have a greater effect on ventilation?
    4 years ago
  • Facondo
    How does muscle rigidity increase breath pco2?
    4 years ago
  • Mike
    What effect of arterial pco2 has on ventilation?
    4 years ago
  • mungo
    How hypercapnia affects arterial PO2?
    4 years ago
  • veli-pekka
    How to adgjust pco2 levels?
    4 years ago
  • Julia
    How does high pco2 affect breathing?
    4 years ago
  • Mario
    What changes in PaO2, PaCO2 and pH increase ventilation rate?
    4 years ago
  • myrtle
    How much increase of respiratory rate affects on pco2?
    4 years ago
  • dominik
    How does PCO2 regulate the respiratory rate and blood ph?
    3 years ago
  • merimas
    How does increased ventilation effect ph?
    3 years ago
  • topi
    How does increases in PaCO2 affect PH?
    3 years ago
  • Barbara
    How to normalize PH on ventilator?
    3 years ago
  • Fausta
    What is the effect of increased PCO2?
    3 years ago
  • Ute
    How can a ventilator decrease ph?
    3 years ago
  • macaria fanucci
    Does a PCo2 of 5560 require ventillation?
    3 years ago
  • mary
    How blood gases and pH influence ventilation?
    3 years ago
  • michaela
    What does a eise in blood PCO2 result in?
    3 years ago
  • Marina
    What happens it pco2 level increase in human body?
    3 years ago
  • bernd
    What is the side effect if pco2 is 16.2?
    3 years ago
  • timba greenhand
    What are the effects of exercise on po2, pco2 and ph blood values?
    3 years ago
  • ileana
    What will happen if pco2 level increases?
    2 years ago
  • theodoric oldbuck
    What is the impact of hyperventilation on alveolar and blood pO2 and pCO2?
    2 years ago
  • immacolata zito
    How to increse pco2level?
    2 years ago
  • cassio
    What can i do for rising Pco2 in human body?
    2 years ago
  • Frodo
    Why does Arterial PO2 and PCO2 remains constant during exercise?
    2 years ago
  • Lanfranco
    How is pH affected by PCO2?
    2 years ago
  • alida
    What is the effect of increased plasma PCO2 on pH?
    2 years ago
  • keeva
    How can hyper and hypoventilation affect the regulation of blood?
    2 years ago
  • angela
    Does ventilation affect CO2 levels tion?
    2 years ago
  • mentha
    What we can do in pressure support ventilation PaCO2 is lower PH also is lower?
    2 years ago
  • romola
    How to ventilate with elevated pco2?
    2 years ago
  • haiduc bunce
    How does high pco2 affect ph bin the blood?
    2 years ago
  • Gorhendad
    How does mechinical venting affect ph?
    2 years ago
  • EINOJUHANI
    How does blood gases infulence ventilation?
    1 year ago
  • Stephanie
    How do chemoreceptors affect ph, pco2and po2 how do they modify the rate anddepth of breathing?
    1 year ago
  • PHILIP
    HOW PCO2 AFFECTS BLOOD PH?
    1 year ago
  • Faramir Lightfoot
    How to lower pH on ventilator?
    1 year ago
  • tilly
    How does hypoventilation effect blood gases?
    1 year ago
  • priscilla
    What is po2 vent temp?
    1 year ago
  • WILLIAM
    How does pc02 impact on blood ph?
    1 year ago
  • Brigida
    How po2 pco2 and ph affects respiratory movements?
    1 year ago
  • elisa
    Why does increased ph not increase ventilation?
    1 year ago
  • Miia
    How does a ventilator change the pco2 levels?
    1 year ago
  • Gustavo
    Does rebreathing increase blood ph?
    1 year ago
  • luigia
    What happens when your hyperventilation paco2?
    1 year ago
  • Katariina
    How does he hugh pCO2 affect the breathing?
    1 year ago
  • magnus
    Does arterial CO affect rate and deepth of breathing?
    1 year ago
  • jan
    How does changes in HCO3 effect PH?
    1 year ago
  • marko hirsch
    What happends to vasculature during hyperventilation?
    1 year ago
  • Kyle
    How oes overexercising affect ph of blood?
    1 year ago
  • ernest
    What happens to arterial PCO2 as a result of hyperventilation?
    1 year ago
  • debora
    How are po2 and pco2 in arterial blood affected by hyperventilation?
    1 year ago
  • Ronnie
    What is the effect of elevated PCO2 on respiratory function and on pH?
    1 year ago
  • abraham aziz
    How does ph influence the rate and depth of respiration?
    1 year ago
  • billye crossman
    What effects in blood ph and ventilation rate are expected with hypoventilation?
    1 year ago
  • russom
    How does elevated hco3 affect ph?
    1 year ago
  • liliana
    What happens when the PaCO2 of the arterial blood increases petaining to respirations and ph levels?
    1 year ago
  • kacper
    How does o and co2 affect pulmonaty ventilation?
    1 year ago
  • Naomi
    How does alveolar ventilation rate affect blood ph?
    1 year ago
  • jessica
    How hyperventilation affects pco2 and plasma ph, and?
    1 year ago
  • raymond
    How hypoventilation affects h in blood?
    1 year ago
  • Theodoric Baggins
    How does hypoventillating affect the body?
    1 year ago
  • p
    How are PACO2 and ph affected by anemia?
    12 months ago
  • iris
    How does pH affect pulmonary vasculature?
    11 months ago
  • Tesfay
    What would cause ph levels to increaseon a ventilated patient?
    10 months ago
  • steven
    What are the effects on po2 and co2 an increased respiratory rate?
    9 months ago
  • PRIMA
    How do changes in h in arterial blood affect breathing?
    9 months ago
  • Alexander Kortig
    Does ph in the blood affect pco2 in the body?
    9 months ago
  • Duenna
    Does hyperventilation sinus rate physiology?
    9 months ago
  • Ajay
    How does mechnical ventilation change ph?
    8 months ago
  • lyyli kiiskinen
    What level of PCO2 triggers breathing?
    8 months ago
  • bosco
    What effect does an increase in the PCO2 in blood have on the blood pH?
    8 months ago
  • Kiara
    Why is the body more sensitive to changes in pco2?
    8 months ago
  • negassi
    What ventilator changes is needed in patient with pH 7.38, PCO2 67 and po2 115?
    7 months ago
  • Galeazzo
    Does hyperventilation increase po2?
    7 months ago
  • Katharina
    How does pCO2 influences the ph?
    7 months ago
  • malva
    Why does mechanical ventilation cause issues with pH?
    7 months ago
  • Pam
    What can hypoventilatipon cause?
    7 months ago
  • afwerki
    How the pO2 human cells are maintained?
    7 months ago
  • aili
    How does a ventilator help control blood gases?
    7 months ago
  • james harris
    How does interventions lead to changes in pco2 and blood ph?
    7 months ago
  • sarah
    How does raised arterial pco2 effect ph?
    7 months ago
  • raino
    How does ph and pco2 change during exercise?
    6 months ago
  • goytiom nuguse
    What changes are taking place when CO2 values change ventilation?
    6 months ago
  • BARBARA BRAUER
    What happpens to ph of arterial blood during hyperventilation?
    6 months ago
  • Sophie
    What happens to the partial pressure of co2 pco2 in the blood during kussmaul respirations?
    4 months ago
  • gisella lorenzo
    How do elevated blood PCO2 and low pH levels effect oxygwnation?
    4 months ago
  • lucille
    How can co2 stimulate ventilation?
    4 months ago
  • daisy
    Why does decreased paco2 inaltidue sickness not decrease ventilation?
    3 months ago
  • christian sirvi
    What happens to po2 pco2 or ph under hyperventilates?
    3 months ago
  • isabella dickson
    What happens to po2 pco2 or ph under hypoventilates?
    3 months ago
  • Vito
    How does hyperventilation affect pao2?
    3 months ago
  • Jorma
    How does pco2 regulate ventilation?
    3 months ago
  • gemma hamilton
    Does ventilation increase co2 levels?
    3 months ago
  • Ren
    How does pco2 increase ventilation?
    3 months ago
  • mantissa lothran
    When you are running, what happens to the po2, pco2, and ph of your blood in your leg muscles?
    3 months ago
  • flora
    When minute ventilation decreases what happens to pco2?
    3 months ago
  • Belba
    Why does the concentration of co2 in the blood affect ventilation?
    3 months ago
  • kacper
    When the CO2 concentration in the blood increases does ventilation increase?
    3 months ago
  • Lacey
    Does hyperventilating increase pao2?
    2 months ago
  • Ave
    What are the effect in ventilation when ph falls?
    2 months ago
  • rosamunda
    How does low ph in blood affet in ventilation?
    2 months ago
  • bucca tunnelly
    What are the most important physioloigcal conditions that affect regulation of pulse and ventilaton?
    2 months ago
  • ILDA TRENTINI
    How does po2, pco2, and ph influence ventilation?
    2 months ago
  • cino
    What is the po2 that require ventilator?
    2 months ago
  • john
    What happens if pao2 remains low and paco2 high?
    2 months ago
  • MILO GAUKROGERS
    How does hypoventilation change po2?
    2 months ago
  • MANUELA
    How much PaCO2 inhibit respiration?
    2 months ago
  • ambessa
    How does an increase in pco2 affect ph?
    2 months ago
  • Thomas
    When oxygen does not help pco2 levels what does this mean?
    2 months ago
  • Yolanda
    How would jaden’s pco2 level affect the rate at which his oxygen is dissociating from hemoglobin?
    2 months ago
  • oran
    Does hyperventilation raise the levels of pco2 in the blood?
    2 months ago
  • pervinca
    Why does p aco2 have a greater effect on minute ventilation?
    1 month ago
  • diamond
    When the rate and depth of respiration are reduced the PaCO2?
    1 month ago
  • benjamin
    DO VENTELATORS CHANGE BLOOD PH?
    1 month ago
  • henri
    When ventilation increases what happens to plasma ph?
    1 month ago
  • aziz
    Why emphysema would result in a high blood PCO2 ?
    1 month ago
  • kaarle ryh
    What happens to arterial PCO2 if hypoventilation occurs?
    1 month ago
  • Natale
    Why does paco2 increase with alveolar ventilation?
    1 month ago
  • russell
    What would pco2 and hco3 levels be in a emphyema patient that is hyperventilating?
    1 month ago
  • Yorda
    How does PCO2 H regulate ventilation negative feedback loop?
    1 month ago
  • Paula
    How does ventilation regulate pH and what would hypoventilation or hyperventilation do to pH levels?
    1 month ago
  • Timba
    Why does hyperventilation increase blood ph?
    29 days ago
  • jens busch
    What sort of ventilatory response does decrease in pH cause?
    25 days ago
  • Isengar
    How ph of blood effect to paco2?
    23 days ago
  • mantissa
    Does PO2 increases when taking deep breath?
    23 days ago
  • AFFIANO
    How does mechanical ventilating affect blood pH?
    15 days ago
  • CHELSEA
    What pao2 level is expcted during mechanical ventilation?
    14 days ago
  • aira
    What physiology response to pH and CO2 when in a closed room CO2 is high?
    11 days ago
  • kyla
    What would happen to the pH of blood and CSF if arterial pco2 increased above normal levels?
    9 days ago
  • Mafalda
    How po2 , pco2 and ph increase temperature?
    9 days ago
  • Scolastica Milanesi
    What are the side effects of arterial blood gases?
    7 days ago
  • alexander kortig
    Does hyperventilation increase pao2?
    2 days ago

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