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D cells, 566, 583, 584 DAG. See Diacylglycerol Dale, Henry, 7t Dalton's law, 493 Dark adaptation, 269-270 Dark current, 271, 271/ Data, reproducible, 4 Deacetylation, 62, 63/ Dead space, anatomical, 491 Deafness conduction, 257, 260-261 sensorineural, 260 Deamination, oxidative, 117-118, 118/ Decidua basalis, 670 Decidual reaction, 670 Decompression sickness, 499 Decussation, 197 Dedifferentiation, 468 Defecation, 574 Defecation reflex, 574 Defense mechanisms, 446-453. See also

Immunity Defibrillation, electrical, 398 Deglutition, 561, 563 Dehydration oral rehydration therapy for, 138 physiological response to, 134, 134/ 416 Dehydration synthesis of amino acids, 38, 39/ of carbohydrates, 32, 33/ Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

(DHEAS), 675 Dehydrogenase(s) diseases associated with abnormal concentrations of, 88t function of, 88, 88t Deletion, clonal, 466 Delta cells, 611 Delta waves, 196-197, 196/ Denaturation, of proteins, 39-40 Dendrites, 11, 11/ function of, 153 structure of, 152/, 153, 153/ Dendritic cells, 459, 460/ Dendritic spines, long-term potentiation and, 202 Denervation hypersensitivity, 221 Dense bodies, 355, 355/ Dense fibrous connective tissue, 14 Dense irregular connective tissue, 14, 16/ Dentin, 16, 17/ Dentinal tubules, 16 Deoxyhemoglobin, 504 Deoxyribonuclease, in pancreatic juice, 582t Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base triplets of, 65-66, 66t in chromatin, 62, 63/ of mitochondria, 57, 58 replication of, 69-70, 70/

senescence and, 74 in RNA synthesis, 62, 64 structure of, 42, 43/, 62 synthesis of, 69-78 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) helicases, 69 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerases,

70, 74 Deoxyribose, 42, 44/ Dephosphorylation, 90 Depolarization in action potentials, 162-163 excitatory postsynaptic potential, 170, 170/ of resting membrane potential, in axons, 160/, 161, 162 stimulus intensity for, 164 Depression, treatment for, 176, 177-178 Depressor muscles, 326t Dermatitis, contact, 473 Dermatophagoides /arinae, 472, 473/ Dermis, 18-19, 18/ Desensitization, to hormones, 291 Desmosomes, 138 Deuteranopia, 272 Deuterium, 25 Dextrose solution, 133 DHA. See Docosahexaenoic acid DHEAS. See Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate DHT. See Dihydrotestosterone Diabetes insipidus, 538

nephrogenetic, 538 Diabetes mellitus, 313, 615-618 body shape and, 608 and glycosuria, 135, 544 ketoacidosis in, 36

metabolism in, 116 type 1 (insulin-dependent), 616-617 as autoimmune disease, 470t, 471 etiology of, 313, 616 symptoms of, 616-617 vs. type 2, 615, 615t uncorrected insulin deficiency in, 616, 616/

type 2 (non-insulin-dependent), 615, 617-618 etiology of, 313, 617 oral glucose tolerance in, 617, 617/, 618 symptoms of, 617 treatment of, 606 vs. type 1, 615, 615t Diabetic retinopathy, 393 Diacylglycerol (DAG), 296 Dialysis, 128, 552

continuous ambulatory peritoneal, 552 Diapedesis (extravasation), 369, 447, 447/ Diaphragm, 483, 488

and venous return, 412 Diarrhea, 574 etiology of, 574 traveler's, 585 treatment for, 138 Diastole, 381-382, 381/ Diastolic pressure, 432, 433 Diencephalon, 204, 204/

development of, 191 Dieting, metabolism during, 116 Differentiation, cellular, 64 Diffusion, 127-130 concentration gradients in, 128, 128/ definition of, 128

facilitated, 127, 135-136, 135/, 136/, 139/ ion channels in, 129, 129/ net (osmosis), 128, 130-133 rate of, 129 simple, 127 Digestion, 587-591 of carbohydrates, 588 definition of, 561 enzymes in, 588t fat and, 585

hydrolysis reactions in, 560/, 561 of lipids, 589, 590/ of proteins, 584, 588-589, 589/ in stomach, 567-568 transportation after, 366 Digestive system, 558-591. See also Gastrointestinal tract accessory organs in, 561-562 cells of, 79

apoptosis in, 72 circulatory system and, 366, 440, 592 components of, 19t, 561-562, 561 / endocrine regulation of, 583-587, 584/ endocrine secretions of, 561 endocrine system and, 319, 592 exocrine secretions of, 561 functions of, 19t, 561 glands of, 14

immune system and, 474, 592 integumentary system and, 592 introduction to, 560-563 membrane transport in, 145 metabolism in, 120 muscular system and, 359, 592 nervous system and, 237, 592 neural regulation of, 563, 583-587, 584/ prostaglandins in, 318 reproductive system and, 592, 680 respiratory system and, 516, 592 sensory system and, 277 skeletal system and, 592 urinary system and, 553, 592 Digitalis, 439

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) formation of, 638, 639/, 650 function of, 638 Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), 92

chemical structure of, 229/ 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in calcium and phosphate balance, 625-627 production of, 625, 626/ Diiodotyrosine (DIT), 309 Dimerization, 293 Dioxin, 579

Dipalmitoyl lecithin, 486 Dipeptides, 38

2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid (2,3-DPG), and oxygen transport, 508, 508t Diploid cells, 634-635 Direct phosphorylation, 113 Disaccharides, 31-32

dehydration synthesis of, 33/ Discontinuous capillaries, 393

Dismutase as antioxidant, 111 genetic defects in, 348 D-isomers, 31

Disulfide bonds, in proteins, 40, 41/ Disynaptic reflex, 351 DIT. See Diiodotyrosine Diuretics, 549-551 action of, 549-551, 550t site of, 550-551, 550/ complications related to, 551 for hypertension, 437, 4371 loop, 550t, 551 osmotic, 550t, 551 potassium-sparing, 550t, 551 thiazide, 550t, 551 water as, 416 Divergence, 222 Diverticulitis, 572 DNA. See Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA-binding domain, of hormone receptors, 292 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 600 Domains, of hormone receptors, 292 DOPA. See Dihydroxyphenylalanine L-Dopa, blood-brain barrier and, 159 Dopamine blood-brain barrier and, 159 chemical structure of, 229/ as neurotransmitter, 178, 180t, 206 Dopaminergic neurons, 178, 206 Dormitory effect, in menstruation, 305 Double helix, of DNA, 42, 43/ Downregulation, 291 2,3-DPG. See 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid Drug(s) abuse of dopaminergic neurons and, 206 synaptic effects of, 207t pharmaceutical, development of, 5-6 tubular secretion of, 540 Dual innervation, of organs, 234-235 Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, 326 Duct(s), 14. See also specific ducts Ductus arteriosus, 318, 383, 384/ Ductus (vas) deferens, 637, 650, 651/, 652/ Duodenal (Brunner's) glands, 568, 569/ Duodenum, 569 ulcers of, 568 Dust mites, 472, 473/ Dwarfism, 622 Laron, 622 pituitary, 300 Dyazide, 551

Dynamic constancy, homeostasis as, 8, 8/ Dynorphin, 180 Dyrenium. See Triamterene Dysmenorrhea, 663 Dyspnea, 492

Dysreflexia, autonomic, 235 Dystrophin, 326

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