Credits

Chapter 1

1.7,1.8,1.9,1.10: © Ed Reschke; 1.11a: © Ray Simons/ Photo Researchers; 1.11b: © Photo Researchers; 1.11c,

I.12a, 1.16: © Ed Reschke; 1.17b: © Biology Media/Photo Researchers; 1.18a, 1.19b: © Ed Reschke; 1.20: Courtesy of Southern Illinois University, School of Medicine

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

3.3ab: © Jeon-Visuals Unlimited; 3.4 (1-4): From M.M. Perry and A.B. Gilbert. Journal of Cell Science 39:257-272, 1979. Reprinted by permission Company of Biologists, LTD.; 3.5a: © Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers; 3.5b: Courtesy Richard Chao; 3.6: © Dr. Dennis Kunkel/PhotoTake; 3.7: © K. G. Murtin/Visuals Unlimited; 3.9: Courtesy Richard Chao; 3.10a: Courtesy Keith R. Porter; 3.11: Courtesy of Joacim Frank; 3.12a: Courtesy of Keith Porter; 3.13a: Courtesy of Mark S. Ladinsky and Kathryn D. Howell, University of Colorado 3.14: Courtesy of Richard Chao; 3.15a: Courtesy of Ed Pollock; 3.20: © E. Kiselva-D. Fawcett/Visuals Unlimited; 3.29a-e: © Ed Reschke; 3.30a: © D.M. Phillips/ Visuals Unlimited; 3.31ab: Images by Dr. Conly L. Rieder, Division of Molecular Medicine, Wadsworth Center, Albany, New York 12201-0509; 3.32: © SPL/Photo Researchers

Chapter 7

7.6b: Constance Holden, "Versatile Cells Against Intractable Diseases." Science 297 (26 July 2002) p. 501. © AAAS; 7.7: From H. Webster, The Vertebrate Peripheral Nervous System, John Hubbard (ed.), © 1974 Plenum Publishing Corporation; 7.20: © John Heuser, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO

Chapter 8

8.8: Courtesy of Dr. Llinas, New York University Medical Center; 8.9: From W.T. Carpenter and R.W. Buchanan, "Medical Progress: Schizophrenia" in New England Journal of Medicine, 330:685, 1994, fig 1A. © 1994 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved; 8.16b: © The McGraw-Hill Company, Inc./Karl Rubin, photographer

Chapter 10

10.10: © Discover Magazine. Reprinted with permission; 10.13a: Courtesy of Dean E. Hillman; 10.21: © Prof. P. Motta/Dept. of Anatomy/University "La Sapieza," Rome/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 10.29a: © Thomas Simms; 10.32b: Courtesy of P.N. Farnsworth, University of Medicine and Dentistry; 10.36b: © Ominkron/Photo Researchers

Chapter 11

II.1b: © Ed Reschke; 11.21b: © Nawrocki Stock Photo, Inc.; 11.22: © Martin M. Rotker; 11.24, 11.26, 11.27: © L. V. Bergman/The Bergman Collection

Chapter 12

12.2: © Ed Reschke; 12.3b: © Victor B. Eichler; 12.6a, 12.7a: © Dr. H. E. Huxley; 12.7b: From R.G. Kessel and R.H. Kardon, Tissues and Organs: A Text-Atlas of Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1979, W. H. Freeman & Company; 12.9a: © Dr. H. E. Huxley; 12.17: © Stuart Fox; 12.23: © Hans Hoppler, Respiratory Physiology, 44:94 (1981); 12.32,12.33a: © Ed Reschke

Chapter 13

13.2: Reginald J. Poole/Polaroid International Photomicrograph Competition; 13.6 (6 images): © Stuart Fox; 13.7: From Nature, Volume 413, Issue 6855, 4 October 2001, cover. Photo by Dr. John W. Weisel, University of Pennsylvania; 13.8: Adapted from A. Marchand, "Case of the Month, Circulating Anticoagulants: Chasing the Diagnosis" in Diagnostic Medicine, June 1983, p. 14. Copyright © 1984. Reprinted with permission of Medical Economics Company, Inc., Oradell, NJ; 13.11: © Igaku-Shoin, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; 13.27: © Don W. Fawcett; 13.30a: © Biophoto Associates/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Chapter 14

14.4: Source: F. Fuchs and S.H. Smith, "Calcium, Cross-Bridges, and the Frank-Starling Relationship." News in Physiological Sciences, 16 (Feb. 2001): 6; 14.10: From E.K. Markell and M. Vogue, Medical Parasitology, 6th edition, 1986, W.B. Saunders Company; 14.17ab: Courtesy of Donald S. Bain; 14.19: Adapted from P. Astrand and K. Rodahl, Textbook of Work Physiology, 3rd ed. Copyright © 1986 McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, NY. Used by permission of the authors; 14.21ab: © Niels A. Lassen, Coppenhagen, Denmark; 14.28: © Ruth Jenkinson/MIDIRS/Science Photo/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Chapter 15

15.9: © McGraw-Hill Company, Inc.; 15.10a: Courtesy of Arthur J. Olson, Ph.D., The Scripps Research Institute, Molecular Graphics Laboratory; 15.11ab: Reprinted with permission from A.G. Amit, "Three Dimensional Structure of an Antigen-Antibody Complex at 2.8 A Resolution" in Science, vol. 233, August 15, 1986. © American Association for the Advancement of Science; 15.17a: From Alan S. Rosenthal, "Current Concepts: Regulation of the Immune Response—Role of the Macrophage" in New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 303:1153, Nov. 13, 1980, fig. 2, © Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved; 15.25ab: © Dr. Andrejs Liepins; 15.27ab: © SIU Biomed/ Custom Medical Stock; 15.28a: © Stan Flegler/Visuals Unlimited; 15.28b: © Dennis Kunkel/Phototake

Chapter 16

16.2: From John J. Murray, The Normal Lung, 2nd edition, 1986, © W.B. Saunders; 16.3ab: Courtesy American Lung Association; 16.5b: © John Watney Photo Library; 16.6: © Phototake; 16.7: © Manfred Kage/Peter Arnold; 16.9ab, 16.10: Courtesy of Edward C. Vasquez, R.T.C.R.T., Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Los Angeles City College;

16.13ab: From J.H. Comore, Jr., Physiology of Respiration: An Introductory Text, 2nd edition, 1974 © Yearbook Medical Publishers, Inc. Chicago; 16.18a: © R. Calentine/Visuals Unlimited; 16.18b: © M. Moore/Visuals Unlimited; 16.36a: © Bill Longcore/Science Source/Photo Researchers; 16.36b: © David Phillips/Photo Researchers

Chapter 17

17.3: © SPL/Photo Researchers; 17.4b: © Biophoto Associates/Photo Researchers; 17.7: © Professor P.M. Motta and M. Sastellucci/SPL/Photo Researchers; 17.9: From Bloom and D.W. Fawcett, A Textbook of Histology, 11th edition. ©1986 W. B Saunders

Chapter 18

18.4b, 18.6: © Kent M. Van De Graaff; 18.13ab: Two photos: From Keith R. Porter, D.H. Aplers and D. Seetharan, "Pathophysiology of Diseases Involving Intestinal Brush-Border Proteins" in New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 296, 1997, p.1047, fig. 1. © 1977 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved; 18.18: From Bloom and D.W. Fawcett, A Textbook of Histology, 11th edition. ©1986 W. B. Saunders; 18.19: From W.A. Sodeman and T.M. Watson, Pathologic Physiology, 6th edition, 1969, © W.B. Saunders, Inc.; 18.27a: © Carroll Weiss/Camera M.D. Studios; 18.27b: © Dr. Sheril Burton; 18.28a: © Ed Reschke

Chapter 19

19.17: Reprinted from "Acromegaly Diabetes, Hypermetabolism, Proteinuria and Heart Failure, Clinico-pathologic Conference" in American Journal of Medicine, 20, (1956) © 1956 with permission from Excerpta Media, Inc.; 19.18a: From S.N. Bhasker (ed.), Orban's Oral Histology and Embryology, 8th edition. © 1976 C.V. Mosby & Co.; 19.19ab: Photo from L.G. Raisz, S.W. Dempster, et al., New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 218 (13):818. © 1988 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

Chapter 20

20.2a: © CNRI/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers; 20.2b: © Dept. of Clinical Cytogenetics, Addenbrooks Hospital, Cambridge/SPL/Photo Researchers; 20.3a: © Visuals Unlimited; 20.3b: © M. Abbey/Photo Researchers; 20.10: From F. K. Shuttleworth, Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development, Inc., Chicago, IL. Copyright © 1939 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc. Reprinted by permission; 20.17a: © Biophoto Associates/ Photo Researchers; 20.20b: © F. Leroy/SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc; 20.28ab: © Ed Reschke; 20.29a: From Richard J. Blandau, A Textbook of Histology, 10th edition. © W.B. Saunders; 20.30: From Bloom and D.W. Fawcett, A Textbook of Histology,10th edition. ©1975 W. B Saunders; 20.31: © Dr. Landrum Shettles; 20.36: © Martin M. Rotker; 20.42: Courtesy of David L. Hill; 20.44a: © Petit Format/Photo Researchers; 20.44b: © SPL/Photo Researchers; 20.44c: © Dr. Landrum Shettles; 20.44d: © Biophoto Associates/Photo Researchers.

Index

Note: Page references followed by the letters f and t indicate figures and tables, respectively.

A bands, 326-328, 330-333 Abdominopelvic cavity, 483 Abducens nerve, 212/ Abductor muscles, 326/ ABO system, 372-373, 373/ 373/ Abortion pill, 668

ABP. See Androgen-binding protein Absorption, 138 gastrointestinal, 561, 587-591 of carbohydrates, 588 in large intestine, 572-573 of electrolytes, 574 of fluid, 574 of lipids, 590, 591/ of proteins, 588-589, 589/ in small intestine, 569, 574 in stomach, 568 renal (See Kidney(s), reabsorption in) Absorptive state, 609 glucagon in, 613 insulin in, 613 Abuse, drug dopaminergic neurons and, 206 synaptic effects of, 207/ Acceleration horizontal, 253 linear, 251 rotational, 251 vertical, 253 Accessory digestive organs, 561-562, 561/ Accessory nerves, 212/ Accessory sex organs development of, 637-639, 638/ male, 649-650 Accommodation, by eyes, 265, 266/, 267 ACE. See Angiotensin-converting enzyme Acetazolamide, 549, 550/, 551 Acetoacetic acid, 36/, 116 Acetone, 36/ 116

Acetyl coenzyme A, formation of, 109 alternative pathways for, 115, 115/ Acetylation, 62, 63/ Acetylcholine (ACh) and cardiac rate, 408 discovery of, 167 inactivation of, 173 and muscle fibers, 328 as neurotransmitter, 144, 170-175 in autonomic nervous system, 228,

232, 233/ in central nervous system, 175 in peripheral nervous system, 174-175 Acetylcholine (ACh) receptors muscarinic, 171, 173, 173/ nicotinic, 171, 171 / and drug abuse, 206 Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 173, 174/ ACh. See Acetylcholine AChE. See Acetylcholinesterase Acid(s), 28-29 common examples of, 28/ definition of, 28 nonvolatile, 377-378 organic, 29, 31/ volatile, 377 Acid phosphatase diseases associated with abnormal concentrations of, 88/, 89 pH optimum of, 90/ Acid-base balance, 510-511 of blood, 377-378, 377/

and ventilation, 511, 512/ disturbances in, 549, 549/ renal control of, 548-549, 548/

Acidosis, 29, 377 compensated, 377/

metabolic, 377, 377/, 378/, 511, 548-549 respiratory, 377-378, 377/, 378/, 511 Acini, 14, 581, 581/ Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 458 cancer with, 458, 469 receptor-mediated endocytosis in, 54 treatment of, 458 Acromegaly, 300, 622, 622/ Acrosome(s), 666 Acrosome reaction, 666, 666/ ACTH. See Adrenocorticotropic hormone Actin, 56, 330, 334/, 335, 336/

in cardiac muscle contractions, 410 Action potentials, 161-165, 163/ all-or-none law of, 163-164 of axon(s), 161-165, 163/ in axon hillock, 175 in cardiac muscle, 384-386, 385/, 408 conduction of, 165-167 depolarization in, 162-163 vs. EPSPs, 171-172, 172/ local anesthetics and, 162 membrane potentials and, 161-165 in muscle cells, 336 and neurotransmitter release, 168-169 potassium ions in, 162, 163/ refractory periods in, 164, 165/ repolarization in, 162 in sensation, 243 sodium ions in, 162-163, 163/ in spinal reflex arc, 213-214 stimulus intensity in, coding for, 164, 164/ in transverse tubules, 337 Activation energy catalysts and, 86, 87/ definition of, 86 Activation, mass, of sympathetic neurons, 222 Active sites, of enzymes, 86 Active transport, 127, 136-138, 137/, 139/ ATP in, 136 cotransport, 137, 138/ countertransport, 137-138 of glucose, 137, 138/ in kidneys, 137, 138/, 532-533 of potassium ions, 136-138, 137/ primary, 136

pumps in, 136-137 (See also Sodium-

potassium pump) secondary, 137-138 in small intestine, 137 of sodium ions, 136-138, 137/, 138/ in stomach, 566, 567/ Actos, 606

Acute mountain sickness (AMS), 515, 549 Acute respiratory distress syndrome

(ARDS), 487 ADA. See Adenosine deaminase Adam's apple, 481 Adaptation dark, 269-270 sensory, 242 Adapting receptors, rapidly, 503-504 Adaptive thermogenesis, 608-609 Addictive drugs, dopaminergic pathways and, 178 Addison's disease, 307, 547 Adductor muscles, 326/ Adenine, 42, 42/, 43/, 62 Adenohypophysis. See Pituitary gland, anterior Adenoid, 401/

Adenosine deaminase (ADA), gene therapy for, 71

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), production of, 374

Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) in hydrogen-potassium ATPase pumps,

566, 567/ myosin, 334, 345/ Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and action potentials, 163 in active transport, 136 production of, 94-95, 96/ in aerobic respiration, 108-114 electron transport in, 112-113 in glycolytic-lactic acid pathway,

104-108, 113 yield of, 113, 113/ structure of, 96/

as universal energy carrier, 95, 96/ Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase, in

ATP production, 112 Adenyl cyclase. See Adenylate cyclase Adenylate cyclase in hormone action, 294-296, 295/, 295/ in neurotransmission, 177, 177/ Adenylate cyclase-cAMP second messenger system, 294-296, 295/, 295/ ADH. See Antidiuretic hormone Adhesion molecules, 452 Adipocyte(s), 16, 605-606 Adipose tissue, 16, 16/ 18, 18/ development of, 605-606 endocrine functions of, 287/ regulatory functions of, 605-608 Adipostat, 605

ADP. See Adenosine diphosphate Adrenal glands, 223, 306-308 cortex of, 223 functions of, 287/, 289, 306-307, 619 structure of, 305 medulla of, 223 functions of, 287/, 289, 307, 619 tumor of, 307 in metabolic regulation, 618-620 stress and, 307-308 structure of, 305, 305/ as sympathetic ganglion, 223 Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, 639 Adrenal zone, fetal, 675 Adrenergic receptor(s), 230-231 a-Adrenergic receptor(s), 230-231 a-Adrenergic receptor blockers, 650 p-Adrenergic receptors, 230-231, 232 p3-Adrenergic receptors, 619-620 Adrenergic sympathetic fibers, 420-421 Adrenergic synaptic transmission,

228-229, 230/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 288/ and glucocorticoid secretion, 299, 300/ as neurotransmitter, 180/ target organs of, 302/ Adrian, Edgar, 7/ Adult stem cells, 64 Aerobic capacity, 343-344 Aerobic cell respiration, 104, 108-114, 113/ Afferent arterioles, 526 Afferent neurons. See Sensory neurons Affinity, of hormones, 292 Afterload, 409 Age and body growth, 641-643, 642/ and cancer, 469 and cell division, 74 and testosterone secretion, 645 and visual accommodation, 267 Agglutination, in antigen-antibody reaction,

450, 450/ Agglutination reaction, 373, 373/ Agglutinins, 373 Agglutinogens, 373

Aggression, cerebral area related to, 200

Agonist(s) of neurotransmitters, 231 skeletal muscle, 326 Agranular (smooth) endoplasmic reticulum.

51f 58-59, 59f AIDS. See Acquired immune deficiency syndrome Akinesia, 352 Alanine in gluconeogenesis, 118 as nonessential amino acid, 117t production of, 117, 118f Alanine transaminase (ALT), reaction catalyzed by, 117 Alarm reaction, 307 Albinism, 92 clinical results of, 93t etiology of, 92, 93t and eye color, 263 metabolic pathway for, 93f Albumins and edema, 131 functions of, 368 in plasma, 368 production of, 368, 580 urinary excretion rate for, 551 Alcohol chemical structure of, 30f combined with cocaine, 227 and dopaminergic neuron activity, 178 synaptic effects of, 207t Aldactazide, 551 Aldactone. See Spironolactone Aldehyde, 30f

Aldolase, diseases associated with abnormal concentrations of, 88t Aldosterone, 37, 306 in blood volume regulation, 417, 417f, 418 control of secretion of, 545-546, 547t in electrolyte balance, 544-545 Aldosteronism, primary, 547 Alimentary canal. See Gastrointestinal tract Alkaline phosphatase diseases associated with abnormal concentrations of, 88t, 89 pH optimum of, 90t Alkalosis, 29, 377 compensated, 377t metabolic, 377-378, 377t, 378t, 511, 548-549

respiratory, 377-378, 3771, 378t, 511 Allergens, 471-472, 473f Allergy(ies), 470, 471-472 mechanism of, 471^72, 472f skin test for, 472, 473f All-or-none law of action potentials, 163-164 Allosteric inhibition, in metabolic pathway, 91 Alpha cells, 312

function of, 312, 611 Alpha chains, 504 Alpha helix, of protein, 39, 40f Alpha motoneurons, 349-350

coactivation of, 350 Alpha waves, 196, 196/ Alpha-1 globulin, 453 Alpha-2 globulin, 453 Alpha-fetoprotein, 468 ALS. See Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALT. See Alanine transaminase Altitude and blood gas measurements, 498, 514, 514/ and partial oxygen pressure, 495t and ventilation, 514-515, 514t, 515f, 515t Alveolus(i), 480, 480f, 481f of mammary glands, 677 and pulmonary capillaries, 480, 480f, 481 f structure of, 480, 480f

Alzheimer's disease, 175, 194 matrix metalloproteinases in, 127 treatment for, 175 Amacrine cells, 268 Ambrosia spp., 472, 473/ Amenorrhea, 643, 663 Amine(s) as hormones, 287 as neurotransmitters, 180/ Amino acids, 38-40 dehydration synthesis of, 38, 39/ essential, 117, 117/, 600 and glucagon secretion, 612-613 and insulin secretion, 612-613 metabolism of, 116-118, 118/

inborn errors in, 93i as neurotransmitters, 179, 180/ nonessential, 117, 117/ structure of, 38, 39/ Amino functional group, 30/, 38, 39/ Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes, 66 Aminopeptidase, 571/, 588, 588/ Ammonia, 26/ and cirrhosis, 576 metabolism of, 117, 579 production of, 579 Amnesia, etiology of, 201 Amniocentesis, 671-672, 673/ Amniotic cavity, 670 Amniotic fluid, 671 Amniotic sac, 672/

formation of, 670-672 Amoeboid movement, of cells, 53, 56 AMPA receptors, 179

and memory, 202 Amphetamines dopaminergic neurons and, 206 and neurotransmission, 178 synaptic effects of, 207/ Ampicillin, excretion of, 576/ Ampulla, 253, 677 sphincter of, 581 Amputation, phantom limb sensation after, 246 AMS. See Acute mountain sickness Amygdala. See Amygdaloid nucleus Amygdaloid nucleus, 200 in aggression, 200 in memory of fear responses, 202 in olfaction, 249 Amylase(s) diseases associated with abnormal concentrations of, 88/ pancreatic, 582, 582/, 588, 588/ 588/ pH optimum of, 89, 89/, 90/ reactions catalyzed by, 88/, 563 salivary, 563, 588, 588/ Amyloid p-peptide, in Alzheimer's disease, 194 Amyloid beta protein, in Alzheimer's disease, 175 Amyloid plaques, in Alzheimer's disease, 194 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 348 Anabolic reactions (anabolism), 104.

599-600, 615/ Anabolic requirements, 603-604 Anabolic steroids, 645. See also Androgen(s) Anabolism. See Anabolic reactions Anaerobic cell respiration, lactic acid pathway as, 105-106 Anaerobic threshold, 343 Anal canal, 574 Anal sphincter, 574 Anaphase, 71/ 72, 73/ 74 Anaphase I, 76, 76/, 77/ Anaphase II, 76, 76/, 77/ Anaphylactic shock, 439 Anatomical dead space, 491 Androgen(s) actions of, 645-646, 646/ in embryonic development, 636 exogenous, 291 secretion of, 315 synthetic, effects of, 291 Androgen-binding protein (ABP), 648 Anemia, 369, 505, 508 aplastic, 369

iron-deficiency, 369, 372 pernicious, 369 lactate dehydrogenase concentrations and, 88/ Vitamin B12 and, 566 sickle-cell, 508-509, 509/ Anergy, clonal, 466

Anesthetics, local, and action potentials, 162

ANF (atrial natriuretic factor). See Atrial natriuretic peptide Angel dust, 182 Angina pectoris, 107, 397 Angiogenesis, 393 Angiogram, 423, 424/ Angioplasty, balloon, 423, 424/ Angiotensin I, 417, 417/ 545 Angiotensin II, 180/, 417-418, 417/, 545 Angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, for hypertension, 437/ Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), 417,

417/, 545 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, 418 for hypertension, 437/ Angiotensinogen, 417, 417/, 545 Angular acceleration, 251 Angular gyrus, 199

damage to, 199 Anhydrase(s), reaction catalyzed by, 88/, 91, 510, 548

Animal models, of disease processes, 5 Animal studies, role of, 4 Anions, 25

and cation distribution, 140, 140/ Annual Review o/ Physiology, 5 Annuli fibrosi, 378 Annulospiral sensory neurons, 348 Anorexia nervosa, 608 ANP. See Atrial natriuretic peptide Antagonist(s) in hormone action, 290 in neurotransmission, 231 skeletal muscle, 326 Antagonistic effectors, 8 Anthracosis (black lung), 483, 493 Anthrax, 464 Antibiotics blood-brain barrier and, 159 secretion of, 540 Antibody(ies), 453-456 antigen-binding site of, 455, 456/ complement system and, 456-457 diversity of, 455-456 early research on, 449, 456 in local inflammation, 451-452, 452/ maternal, breast-feeding and, 678, 678/ monoclonal, 467, 467/ in primary response, 464, 464/ production of, 449, 453 as proteins, 41

in secondary response, 464-465, 464/ specificity of, 372, 449, 453 structure of, 453-455, 455/, 456/ subclasses of, 453, 455/ Antibody-mediated immunity, 450 Anticoagulants, 376-377, 376/ Anticodons, 66, 67/, 68/ Antidepressants, 177 Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), 288/ blood volume regulation by, 368,

416-417, 416/ dehydration and, 134 and diabetes insipidus, 538 effects of, 536-538, 539/ functions of, 205, 300, 368 as neurotransmitter, 180/ and plasma concentration homeostasis,

538, 539/ production of, 205, 416 secretion of, 416 Antigen(s), 372-374, 449 ABO system, 372-373 definition of, 449 genetics of, 372 histocompatibility, 459, 460 non-self (foreign), 466 in plasma membrane, 52 proteins and, 450 receptors for, 455 Rh factor, 374 self, 466

and autoimmunity, 470-471 structure of, 449 Antigen-binding fragment, 455, 455/ Antigen-presenting cells, 451, 459 T lymphocytes and, 459, 460^62, 460/, 461/ Antigenic determinant sites, 449 Antigenicity, virulence and, 464, 464/ Antihemophilic factor, 375/ Antioxidants, 602-603, 604/ for Alzheimer's disease, 175 function of, 111, 601

Antiport, 137 Antiserum, 466 Antithrombin III, 376 Antitoxin, 466 a-Antitrypsin, 492 Antrum, 565, 565/, 657 Anus, 651/, 655/ Anvil, 255 Aorta, 379 Aortic arch, 430 Aortic bodies, 500, 501/, 502 Aphasia(s), 199 Broca's, 199 conduction, 199 recovery from, 200 Wernicke's, 199 Aplastic anemia, 369 Apnea, sleep, 503

Apneustic respiratory center, 206, 208/,

499, 500/ Apocrine sweat glands, 14 Apoptosis, 57, 72 Appendectomy, 572 Appendicitis, 572 Appendix, 572, 573/ Appetite, regulation of, 606-607 Aquaporin proteins, 535 Aquaporins, 130, 536 Aqueous humor, 263, 264/ Arachidonic acid, 317, 374 Arcuate arteries, 526 Arcuate fasciculus, 199 Arcuate veins, 526 ARDS. See Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Areolar (loose connective) tissue, 14, 16 Arginine, 39/

as nonessential amino acid, 117/ Arginine vasopressin (AVP). See Antidiuretic hormone Aristotle, 6, 192 Aromatase, 645 Aromatic compounds, 29 Aromatization, 645 Arousal, 643 Arrector pili muscle, 18/ Arrhythmias, cardiac, 387 electrocardiograph detection of,

397-399, 398/ treatment of, 387 Arterial blood, 367

pH of, 377 Arterioles, 367, 392 afferent, 526 efferent, 526 as resistance vessels, 411 Arteriosclerosis, 395 Arteriovenous anastomoses, 392, 392/,

428, 428/ Artery(ies), 390-392 arcuate, 526

blood pressure in, 429, 429/

mean, 419^20, 435 coronary, 423, 424/ elastic, 391 functions of, 366 hepatic, 575 interlobar, 526 interlobular, 526 muscular, 391-392 pulmonary, 379, 379/ renal, 526

as resistance vessels, 411 spiral, 663

structure of, 366-367, 390-391, 391/ umbilical, 672 Arthritis, rheumatoid, 470, 470/, 471 Ascorbic acid. See Vitamin C Asparagine, as nonessential amino acid, 117/ Aspartate transaminase (AST), reaction catalyzed by, 117 Aspartic acid, 39/ as neurotransmitter, 179, 180/ as nonessential amino acid, 117/ production of, 117, 118/ Aspermatogenesis, 470/ Aspirin, 318 absorption in stomach, 568 and blood clotting, 374, 376/ Association neurons (interneurons) in brain, 190 function of, 348 location of, 153/, 154 AST. See Aspartate transaminase

Asthma, 472, 491, 492

treatment for, 472, 492 Astigmatism, 267, 267/ Astrocytes, 155/ functions of, 156, 156/, 159 structure of, 159, 159/ Ataxia, 208 Atelectasis, 485 Atenolol, 232 Atheromas, 395

Atherosclerosis, 395-397, 395/, 591

reactive oxygen species associated with, 111 Athlete's bradycardia, 397 Atmospheric pressure, measurement of,

493-494, 494/ Atom(s), 24-25 definition of, 24 isotopes of, 24-25 reduced, 96 structure of, 24 Atomic mass, 24 Atomic number, 24 ATP. See Adenosine triphosphate ATPase. See Adenosine triphosphatase Atrial contraction, 382 Atrial fibrillation, 381, 398 Atrial flutter, 398

Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). See Atrial natriuretic peptide Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), 417, 418, 546 Atrial stretch reflexes, and blood pressure, 432 Atrioventricular bundle. See Bundle of His Atrioventricular (AV) node, 385-386, 386/ Atrioventricular (AV) node block, 398-399 first-degree, 399, 399/ second-degree, 399, 399/ third-degree (complete), 399, 399/ Atrioventricular (AV) valves, 380, 380/

incompetent, 382 Atrium (atria) contraction of, 381 functions of, 378 septal defects in, 383, 384/ A/ropa belladonna, 232 Atrophy, 75 Atropine, 232 Audiometry, 261 Auditory meatus, external, 255 Auditory tube, 255 Auerbach's plexus, 562/, 563, 585 Auricle, 255

Auscultatory method, of blood pressure measurement, 432^33, 433/ 434/ Autoantibodies, 466 Autocrine regulation, 316-318 definition of, 316 examples of, 316-317, 316/ prostaglandins in, 317-318 Autoimmune diseases, 470-471, 470/ Autoimmunity, 470-471, 470/ Automaticity, 384 Autonomic dysreflexia, 235 Autonomic nervous system (ANS), 218-236, 226/. See also Parasympathetic nervous system; Sympathetic nervous system components of, 154

control by higher brain centers, 236, 236/ divisions of, 222-226 functions of, 227-236, 230/ gastrointestinal regulation by, 563 and glucagon secretion, 613 and heart activity, 408^09, 408/, 409/ and insulin secretion, 613 neurotransmitters in, 175, 227-234, 229/ and pacemaker potentials, 408, 408/ vs. somatic nervous system, 220-221. 220/, 221 / terminology of, 153/ Autophagy, 57 Autophosphorylation, 298 Autoreactive T lymphocytes, 466 Autoregulation of blood flow, 422, 427 renal, 531 Autosomal chromosomes, 76, 634 AV. See under Atrioventricular Avandia, 606 Averted vision, 274 Avogadro's number, 131 AVP (arginine vasopressin). See Antidiuretic hormone Axis, 304 hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad, 304/ hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid, 304/

pituitary-adrenal, 306/ pituitary-ovarian, 658-659 Axoaxonic synapses, 167 Axodendritic synapses, 167 Axon(s), 11, 11/ action potentials of, 161-165, 163/ conduction in, 165-167 electrical activity in, 160-167 function of, 153 ion gating in, 161, 161/ movement in, 153, 153t myelinated vs. unmyelinated. 156-157, 157/ conduction in, 165/ 166-167, 166/ regeneration of, 157-158, 158/ structure of, 152/, 153, 153/ Axon collaterals, 152/, 153 growth of, central nervous system injury and, 158 Axon hillock, 152/, 153

action potentials at, 175 Axonal transport, 153t, 154 Axoplasmic flow, 153, 153t Axosomatic synapses, 167

B lymphocytes (B cells), 450 in clonal selection theory, 465, 465/, 465t functions of, 450, 453-457, 454/ interaction with T lymphocytes, 461/,

462, 463/ in local inflammation, 451 vs. T lymphocytes, 451 t, 458 Babinski's reflex, 211, 353t Bacteria, in large intestine, 572-574 Balance. See Equilibrium Balloon angioplasty, 423, 424/ Band cells, 369

Banking, of umbilical cord blood, 677 Banting, Frederick, 7t Baroreceptor(s), 409 Baroreceptor reflex, and blood pressure,

430-431, 430/, 431/, 432/ Barr body, 635, 635/ Barrier(s) blood-brain, 159 blood-testis, 647

to glomerular filtration, 529, 530/ Basal cell carcinoma, 72 Basal ganglia. See Basal nuclei Basal lamina. See Basement membrane Basal metabolic rate (BMR), 598, 608

thyroxine and, 309, 620-621 Basal nuclei, 178, 197, 197/ damage to, 352

in motor neuron control, 211, 211/ in skeletal muscle control, 352 Base(s), 28-29 common examples of, 28t definition of, 28

law of complementary pairing, 42 in mRNA, 61 Base triplets, 66t

Basement membrane, 13, 13/, 127

Basic stain, 369

Basilar membrane, 257, 258/

sound frequency and, 257, 258/ Basophils, 369, 370/, 370t Bayliss, William, 583 BDNF. See Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Beef fat, saturated fat content of, 34

Behring, Emil Adolf von, 449

Belladonna (atropine), 232

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 641, 650

Benzene, 30/

Benzodiazepines, 179

Benzoic acid, and penicillin secretion, 540

Benzopyrene, 579

Bernard, Claude, 6

Best, Charles, 7t

Beta cells, 312

functions of, 312, 611 Beta chains, 504 Beta globulin, 453

Beta pleated sheet, of protein, 39, 40/ Beta waves, 196, 196/ Beta-carotene, 602

and atherosclerosis, 396 Bias, in experiments, 5

Bicarbonate in blood, 510 as buffer, 29

and pH level, 377-378, 512/ in duodenum, 568 reabsorption of, in proximal tubule. 548-549, 548/ Bicuspid valve, 380, 380/ Bile constituents of, 577, 580 production of, 575, 577-579 secretion of, 575-576, 576/, 5Ht regulation of, 586-587 storage of, in gallbladder, 580-581 Bile acids, 579, 579/ Bile canaliculi, 575-576 Bile ducts, 576

common, 580-581, 580/ Bile pigment. See Bilirubin Bile salts, 579 Bilirubin (bile pigment) conjugated, 577

enterohepatic circulation of, 576t free, 577

and jaundice, 577 metabolism of, 578/ production of, 577, 579 Bioenergetics, 93-96 Biofeedback, 236 Biotin, 602t daily dietary intake of, 603t Bipolar cells, 268 Bipolar neurons, 154, 155/ Birth defects, stereoisomers and, 31 Bitter receptors, 248-249, 249/ Black lung (anthracosis), 483, 493 Bladder, urinary, 524, 525, 651/, 652/, 655/ Blastocyst, 668/ formation of, 667-669, 668/ implantation of, 667, 669-670, 669/ Bleaching reaction, 269 Blind measurement, 5 Blind spot, 263 Blindness color, 272

in dominant retinitis pigmentosa, 269 mitochondrial DNA and, 58 Blood. See also Plasma acid-base balance of, 377-378, 377t and ventilation, 511, 512i arterial, 367, 377, 513, 513/ cells of (See specific types) composition of, 367-377, 367/ antagonistic effectors in, 8 normal ranges for, 7t as connective tissue, 14 detoxication of, by liver, 577t, 579 distribution of, 411, 412/ energy carriers in, 115 enzymes in, disease and, 88, 88t formed elements of, 367, 368-370, 370t hematopoiesis of, 370-371 functions of, 366 gases in altitude and, 498, 514, 514t exercise and, 513, 513/ measurement of, 494-496, 496/ partial pressure of, 494-499, 495/, 496/, 497/, 503, 503/ in immune response, 366 lipids in, transport of, 590-591, 591t oxygen-carrying capacity of, 505 pH of, 29, 377-378 bicarbonate and, 512/ ventilation and, 500-502, 511 transfusion reactions, 373 typing, 372-374, 373/, 373t venous, 367 viscosity of, 419 Blood clot/clotting disorders of, 375, 376t dissolution of, 375-377 extrinsic pathway of, 375, 376/ factors, 374-375, 375t production of, 580 fibrinogen in, 368 formation of, 374-375 functions of, 366 intrinsic pathway of, 375, 376/ platelets in, 369-370, 374 positive feedback in, 9 retraction of, 374 Blood flow in brain, 192, 427, 428/ distribution of during exercise, 424, 425/ at rest, 418, 419t, 424, 425/ to heart, 379, 380, 423 abnormal, 382-383, 423, 424/ regulation of, 423 hepatic, 575

physical laws regarding, 419-420 in placenta, 672-673, 673/ pressure difference and, 419, 419/ pulmonary, 379, 379/ rates of, 418 regulation of extrinsic, 420-421, 422t intrinsic, 422 paracrine, 421-422 renal, 543

skeletal muscle pump and, 394, 394/ in skeletal muscles, 423, 424-427

during exercise, 424-427, 425/, 425t in skin, 18, 427-429, 428/ systemic, 379, 379/ vascular resistance to, 418-422 in fetuses and neonates, 497 Blood group proteins, composition of, 41t Blood plasma. See Plasma Blood pressure, 429-435 arterial, 429, 429/ atrial stretch reflexes and, 432 average, 433

baroreceptor reflex and, 430-431, 430/

431/ 432/ blood volume and, 417 during cardiac cycle, 381-382, 382/ cardiac rate and, 430, 430/ in circulatory shock, 438, 439 classification of, 436, 436t diastolic, 432, 433 and edema, 415, 415t high (See Hypertension) measurement of, 430, 432-433 auscultatory method of, 432-433,

433/, 434/ phases of, 433, 435/ myogenic control of, 422 peripheral resistance and, 430 stroke volume and, 430 systolic, 432, 433 by type of vessel, 420/ venous, 393 Blood vessels, 390-394. See also specific types angiogenesis of, 393 blood pressure by type of, 420/ characteristics of, 393t functions of, 366-367 paracrine regulation of, 421-422 renal, 526, 527/

resistance to blood flow in, 418-422, 422t in fetuses and neonates, 497 structure of, 390, 391/ types of, 366-367 Blood volume, 412^18 end-diastolic, 381, 409, 410/, 411, 412/ in hypovolemic shock, 437-438 regulation of, 412

by kidneys, 416-418, 416/, 417/ stroke, 381, 408, 409^11 total, 367, 408 in veins, 411, 412/ Blood-brain barrier, 159 Blood-testis barrier, 647 BMI. See Body mass index BMR. See Basal metabolic rate Body growth by age, 641-643, 642/ growth hormone and, 622 sex and, 642, 642/ Body mass index (BMI), 608 Body shape, 608 Body temperature basal, 665/

in rhythm method, 664 in fever, 448 regulation of, 6-7 antagonistic effectors in, 8, 8/ blood flow in, 427-429 circulatory system in, 366 control centers for, 598 hypothalamus in, 205 sympathoadrenal system in, 235 Body-fluid compartments, 19. See also Extracellular compartments; Intracellular compartments water in, 24, 126 Bohr effect, 507, 510 Bolus, 563, 564

Bond(s), chemical, 25-27 covalent, 25, 25/, 29, 29/ disulfide, 40, 41 / hydrogen, 27, 27/ ionic, 25-27 peptide, 38, 39/ Bone(s)

alkaline phosphatase concentrations and, 88t carcinoma of, 88t deposition of, 623-624

diseases of, 88t, 89

resorption of, 623-624, 623/

in space, 624 scanning electron micrographs of, 625/ structure of, 16, 17/ Bone marrow and aplastic anemia, 369 as primary lymphoid organ, 450 transplantation, 371 Botox, 328

Botulinum toxin, 169, 172t, 328 Botulism, 589

Boutons, terminal, 168, 168/ Bowman's (glomerular) capsule, 526,

BPH. See Benign prostatic hyperplasia Bradycardia, 397 athlete's, 397 sinus, 398/ Bradykinin, 235, 316t, 317, 418, 421, 429 Braille, 246

Brain, 190-208, 204/. See also specific parts in autonomic nervous system control,

236, 236t blood flow in, 192, 427, 428/ blood-brain barriers in, 159 development of, 190-191, 191/ in emotion, 200-201 enteric (See Enteric nervous system) ependymal cells of, 156 hormones in, 290 in language, 199, 199/ in memory, 201-202

metabolism in, energy source for, 119, 119t in motivation, 200-201 motor neurons in, 347-348, 350 neurotransmission in, 178, 179

dopaminergic, 206, 207/ in pituitary secretion, 304 structural organization of, 190-192, 190/ surgical removal of tissues, and memory, 200, 201 synapses in, 167, 168 testosterone derivatives in, 644-645, 645/ visualization of, 194, 195/, 196/, 196t weight of, 192 Brain stem, respiratory control centers in,

206, 208/, 499-500, 500/ Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

(BDNF), 158 Breast, structure of, 676/ Breast-feeding, 677-678, 677/, 678/

inhibition of, during pregnancy, 290 Breathing (ventilation), 480 acid-base balance and, 511, 512t altitude and, 514-515, 514t, 515/, 515t blood pH and, 500-502, 511 in exercise, 513-514, 513/, 514t expiration in, 488^89, 489/, 489t function tests of, 489^91 inspiration in, 488^89, 489/, 489t mechanics of, 488-493, 490/ partial carbon dioxide pressure and,

500-502, 502/ partial oxygen pressure and, 503 physical aspects of, 483-487 pulmonary receptors and, 503-504 regulation of, 499-504 terminology of, 491t Broca's aphasia, 199 Broca's area damage to, 199 in language, 199 Brodmann, K., 274 Bromocriptine, 677 Bronchioles respiratory, 480, 481 terminal, 481 Bronchoconstriction, 491, 492 Bronchus(i), 481 Brown fat, 620

function of, 115-116 Brunner's glands. See Duodenal glands Brush border, 570. See also Microvilli

Brush border enzymes, 570, 5711 588 Buchner, Eduard, 86 Buffers, 28-29 in blood, 28-29, 377 urinary, 549 Bulbourethral gland, 651/ Bulimia nervosa, 608 Bulk transport, 53-54, 138-139 Bundle of His, 385, 386/ a-Bungarotoxin, and neural control of skeletal muscles, 172t Burkitt's lymphoma, 469 Bursa of Fabricius, 450 Butter, saturated fat content of, 34

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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