The automatic control of breathing is also influenced by input from receptors sensitive to the chemical composition of the blood. There are two groups of chemoreceptors that respond to changes in blood PCo2, pH, and Po2. These are the central chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata and the peripheral chemoreceptors. The peripheral chemoreceptors are contained within small nodules associated with the aorta and the carotid arteries, and they receive blood from these critical arteries via small arterial branches. The peripheral chemorecep-tors include the aortic bodies, located around the aortic arch, and the carotid bodies, located in each common carotid artery at the point where it branches into the internal and external carotid arteries (fig. 16.26). The aortic and carotid bodies should not be confused with the aortic and carotid sinuses (chapter 14) that are located within these arteries. The aortic and carotid sinuses contain receptors that monitor the blood pressure.

The peripheral chemoreceptors control breathing indirectly via sensory nerve fibers to the medulla. The aortic bodies send sensory information to the medulla in the vagus nerve (X); the carotid bodies stimulate sensory fibers in the glossopharyn-geal nerve (IX). The neural and sensory control of ventilation is summarized in figure 16.27.

Wfr The automatic control of breathing is regulated by nerve fibers that descend in the lateral and ventral ^ \ ^ white matter of the spinal cord from the medulla oblongata. The voluntary control of breathing is a function of the cerebral cortex and involves nerve fibers that descend in the corticospinal tracts (chapter 8). The separation of the voluntary and involuntary pathways is dramatically illustrated in the condition called Ondine's curse (the term is taken from a German fairy tale). In this condition, neurological damage abolishes the automatic but not the voluntary control of breathing. People with Ondine's curse must remind themselves to breathe and they cannot go to sleep without the aid of a mechanical respirator.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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  • Linda Goold
    What are the receptors in the aorta that monitor the blood pressure?
    8 years ago
  • isto
    Are cannabinoid receptors chemoreceptors?
    8 years ago
  • leonie
    How central and peripheral chemoreceptors monitor changes in PCO2 and PO2?
    8 years ago
  • corey
    Where are the receptors that monitor blood pressure located?
    8 years ago

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