Neurons and Supporting Cells 152
Classification of Neurons and Nerves 154 Supporting Cells 154 Neurilemma and Myelin Sheath 156 Myelin Sheath in PNS 157 Myelin Sheath in CNS 157 Regeneration of a Cut Axon 157 Neurotrophins 158 Functions of Astrocytes 159 Blood-Brain Barrier 159
Conduction in an Unmyelinated Axon 166 Conduction in a Myelinated Axon 166
The Synapse 167
\ Refresh Your Memory
Before you begin this chapter, you may want to review the following concepts from previous chapters:
■ Diffusion Through the Plasma Membrane 128
. ■ Carrier-Mediated Transport 134
. ■ The Membrane Potential 140
Serotonin as a Neurotransmitter 177 Dopamine as a Neurotransmitter 178 Nigrostriatal Dopamine System 178 Mesolimbic Dopamine System 178 Norepinephrine as a Neurotransmitter
Amino Acids as Neurotransmitters 179 Excitatory Neurotransmitters 179 Inhibitory Neurotransmitters 179 Polypeptides as Neurotransmitters 179 Synaptic Plasticity 180 Endogenous Opioids 180 Neuropeptide Y 180 Endocannabinoids as Neurotransmitters Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide as Neurotransmitters 181
Synaptic Integration 182
Long-Term Potentiation 182 Synaptic Inhibition 182
Summary 184 Review Activities 185 Related Websites 187
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Fox: Human Physiology, I 7. The Nervous System: I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill
Eighth Edition Neurons and Synapses Companies, 2003
Sandra, whose clinical depression was causing her grades to fall, decides to treat herself to dinner at a seafood restaurant.After eating a meal of mussels and clams, which were gathered from the local shore, she falls to the floor. Paramedics quickly arrive at the scene and notice that she has flaccid paralysis of her muscles and is having difficulty breathing. Fortunately, their emergency care saves her life. While the emergency care is being administered, a prescription bottle containing a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor is found in her purse.
Laboratory tests later reveal that her blood contained amounts of the MAO inhibitor that were consistent with its therapeutic use.What might have caused Sandra's medical emergency?
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.