Chapter at a Glance

Defense Mechanisms 446

Innate (Nonspecific) Immunity 446 Phagocytosis 446 Fever 448 Interferons 448 Adaptive (Specific) Immunity 449 Antigens 449 Haptens 450 Immunoassays 450 Lymphocytes and Lymphoid Organs 450 Thymus 450

Secondary Lymphoid Organs 451 Local Inflammation 451

Functions of B Lymphocytes 453

Antibodies 453

Antibody Structure 453 Diversity of Antibodies 455 The Complement System 456

Functions of T Lymphocytes

Killer, Helper, and Suppressor T Lymphocytes 458 Lymphokines 459 T Cell Receptor Proteins 459 Histocompatibility Antigens 460 Interactions Between Antigen-Presenting Cells and T Lymphocytes 460 T Lymphocyte Response to a Virus 461 Destruction of T Lymphocytes 462

Active and Passive Immunity 464

Active Immunity and the Clonal Selection Theory 464 Clonal Selection Theory 465 Active Immunity 466 Immunological Tolerance 466 Passive Immunity 466 Monoclonal Antibodies 467

Tumor Immunology 468

Natural Killer Cells 469 Immunotherapy for Cancer 469 Effects of Aging and Stress 469

Diseases Caused by the Immune System 470

Autoimmunity 470 Immune Complex Diseases 471 Allergy 471

Immediate Hypersensitivity 471 Delayed Hypersensitivity 473

Interactions 474

Summary 475 Review Activities 476 Related Websites 477

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