Chapter at a Glance

Extracellular Environment 126

Body Fluids 126 Extracellular Matrix 126 Categories of Transport Across the Plasma Membrane 127

Diffusion and Osmosis 128

Diffusion Through the Plasma Membrane 128 Rate of Diffusion 129 Osmosis 130

Osmotic Pressure 130 Molarity and Molality 131 Osmolality 132 Measurement of Osmolality 132 Tonicity 133 Regulation of Blood Osmolality 133

Carrier-Mediated Transport 134

Facilitated Diffusion 135 Active Transport 136

Primary Active Transport 136 The Sodium-Potassium Pump 136 Secondary Active Transport (Coupled

Transport) 137 Transport Across Epithelial Membranes 138 Bulk Transport 138

The Membrane Potential 140

Equilibrium Potentials 141

Nernst Equation 141 Resting Membrane Potential 142 Role of the Na+/K+ Pumps 142

Cell Signaling 143

Interactions 145

Summary 146 Review Activities 147 Related Websites 148

Refresh Your Memory

Before you begin this chapter, you may want to review these concepts from previous chapters:

Carbohydrates and Lipids 31

■ Plasma Membrane and Associated Structures 50

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Good Carb Diet

Good Carb Diet

WHAT IT IS A three-phase plan that has been likened to the low-carbohydrate Atkins program because during the first two weeks, South Beach eliminates most carbs, including bread, pasta, potatoes, fruit and most dairy products. In PHASE 2, healthy carbs, including most fruits, whole grains and dairy products are gradually reintroduced, but processed carbs such as bagels, cookies, cornflakes, regular pasta and rice cakes remain on the list of foods to avoid or eat rarely.

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