Cardiac Output

The pumping ability of the heart is a function of the beats per minute (cardiac rate) and the volume of blood ejected per beat (stroke volume).The cardiac rate and stroke volume are regulated by autonomic nerves and by mechanisms intrinsic to the cardiovascular system.

The cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle. The average resting cardiac rate in an adult is 70 beats per minute; the average stroke volume (volume of blood pumped per beat by each ventricle) is 70 to 80 ml per beat. The product of these two variables gives an average cardiac output of 5,500 ml (5.5 L) per minute:

Cardiac output = stroke volume x cardiac rate (ml/min) (ml/beat) (beats/min)

The total blood volume also averages about 5.5 L. This means that each ventricle pumps the equivalent of the total blood volume each minute under resting conditions. Put another way, it takes about a minute for a drop of blood to complete the systemic and pulmonary circuits. An increase in cardiac output, as occurs during exercise, must thus be accompanied by an increased rate of blood flow through the circulation. This is accomplished by factors that regulate the cardiac rate and stroke volume.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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