C

C cells. See Parafollicular cells

C fibers, unmyelinated, 503-504

Ca2+-ATPase pumps, 338

Cable properties, of neurons, 164—165

Cachexia, pituitary, 300

Caffeine, as phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 296

Cajal, interstitial cells of, 571, 572/

Calcipotriene, 602

Calcitonin, 309, 624, 627-628, 627/

for osteoporosis, 625 Calcium balance, regulation of, 623-628, 623t channels for blockers of, 357

for hypertension, 437t in excitation-contraction coupling, 336 fast, 385 slow, 385

voltage-regulated, 168-169 in hormone action, 296, 297/ 298t in muscle contraction skeletal, 336, 337/ smooth, 356, 357 and muscle relaxation, 338 as plasma clotting factor, 375t recommended dietary allowance for, 601 t Calcium-stimulated-calcium-release mechanism, 386 Calculi, renal, 524 Calluses, 18 Calmodulin in hormone action, 296 in smooth muscle contraction, 356 in synapses, 169 Calories definition of, 94 excessive ingestion of, 115 expenditures of, 608-609 requirements for, 598-599 Calyces (calyx) major, 525 minor, 525

cAMP. See Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Canal(s) of Schlemm, 263

semicircular, 251, 251/, 253-255, 254/ Canaliculi, 16, 17/ Cancer. See also specific organs aging and, 469 and cell division, 75 definition of, 468 diagnosis of, 468 genetic factors in, 71-72 immune system and, 468-469, 468/ immunotherapy for, 469 interferons in treatment of, 448-449, 469 stress and, 469 Cannabinoids, 181 Cannon, Walter, 6

Canola oil, saturated fat content of, 34 Capacitance vessels, veins as, 411, 420/ Capacitation, 665 Capacity, of hormones, 292 CAPD. See Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis Capillary(ies), 367, 390, 392-393 blood pressure in, 429 in brain, 159 continuous, 392 discontinuous, 393 fenestrated, 393

fluid exchange with tissues, 413-415, 414/ lymphatic, 399, 400/, 415 peritubular, 526

pressure in, 413 pulmonary, 480, 480/, 481/ structure of, 392, 393/ types of, 392-393 Capillary action, hydrogen bonds and, 28 Capsaicin, 244, 503 Capsaicin receptor, 244 Carbaminohemoglobin, 510 Carbohydrates, 31-32 absorption of, 588 dehydration synthesis of, 32, 33/ digestion of, 588 hydrolysis of, 32, 34/ vs. lipids, 31-32 metabolism of inborn errors in, 93t in liver, 577t in plasma membrane, 53 types of, 31-32 Carbon chemical bonds with, 25, 29/ in organic molecules, 29-30, 29/ structure of, 24, 24t, 25/ Carbon dioxide in blood, forms of, 510 concentration gradient for, 128 in gas exchange, 480 partial pressure of significance of, 496-497 and ventilation, 500-502, 502/ Carbon dioxide transport, 510-511, 511/ Carbon monoxide and hemoglobin, 505 as neurotransmitter, 180t, 181 poisoning, 505 Carbonic acid, 377

as buffer of blood, 29 Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors of, 549

as diuretics, 550t, 551 reaction catalyzed by, 88t, 510, 548 reversibility of, 91 Carbonyl functional group, 30, 30/ Carboxyhemoglobin, 505 Carboxyl functional group, 30, 30/, 38, 39/ Carboxypeptidase, 588t in pancreatic juice, 582t, 588 Carcinoembryonic antigen tests, 468 Cardiac control centers, 208, 409, 431 Cardiac cycle, 381-382, 381/ abnormal, 387

pressure changes in, 381-382, 382/ Cardiac muscle, 10-11, 354—355. See also Heart action potentials in, 384-386, 385/, 408 anaerobic metabolism in, 106, 107 autonomic regulation of, 220, 221 cells of, 10-11, 354, 354/ contraction of, 354, 381-382, 386 extrinsic control of, 411 intrinsic control of, 409-411, 411/ excitation-contraction coupling in,

386, 386/ hypertrophy of, 75 length of, 409-410, 411 / neurotransmission in, 173 resting membrane potential of, 161 vs. skeletal/smooth muscle, 354, 357t striations of, 10, 11/ 354/ synapses in, 167, 168 troponin and, 354 Cardiac output, 408^12 average, 408

cardiac rate and, 408-409 in congestive heart failure, 439 definition of, 408 distribution of during exercise, 424-427, 425/ at rest, 418, 419t 424, 425/ regulation of, 411, 411/ stroke volume and, 408, 409-411 venous return and, 411-412 Cardiac rate, 381 age and, 426, 426t average resting, 408, 426 and blood pressure, 430, 430/ during exercise, 408-409, 424-426 regulation of, 408^09, 408/, 409i antagonistic effectors and, 8 Cardiac region, of stomach, 565 Cardiogenic shock, 439 Cardiovascular reflexes, and circulatory shock, 437, 438t Cardiovascular system. See Blood vessels; Circulatory system; Heart

Carotid bodies, 500, 501 /, 502 Carotid sinuses, 430, 431 Carrier(s) of energy ATP as universal, 95, 96/ in blood, 115 of hydrogen, 96

proteins as, 41, 127, 129, 134-135 in active transport, 136-138 in facilitated diffusion, 135-136, 135/, 136/ Carrier-mediated transport. See Active transport; Diffusion, facilitated Cartilage, 16 Caspases, 72 Castration, 637, 644 Catabolic reactions (catabolism), 104, 599, 615/ during fasting, 614/ Catalase, 603 in peroxisomes, 57 reaction catalyzed by, 88t Catalyst(s) and activation energy, 86, 87/ definition of, 86 Catecholamines, 229/. See also Epinephrine; Norepinephrine chemical structure of, 229/ and glucocorticoids, 290 in metabolic regulation, 619-620, 619/ as neurotransmitters, 176, 176/, 180t 229 Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT),

176, 176/ Cathepsin K, 624 Cations, 25

distribution of, anions and, 140, 140/ Caudate nucleus, 197, 352

degeneration of, 197 CCK. See Cholecystokinin CD4 coreceptors, 461 CD8 coreceptors, 461 Cecum, 572 Celebrex, 318 Celecoxib, 318 Celiac ganglia, 222, 224/ Celiac sprue, 574

Cell(s), 48-78, 51/. See also specific parts by body system, 79 components of, 50-51, 501 51/ cycle of, 71-72, 71 / death of, 57, 72 definition of, 10 differentiation of, 64 division of, 69-78 by meiosis, 75-78 by mitosis, 72-75 DNA synthesis in, 69-78 flexibility of, 52 functions of, 50 gene expression in, 61-64 protein synthesis and secretion in, 65-69 signaling between, 143-144 Cell body, 11, 11 / in central nervous system, 152-153 in peripheral nervous system, 153 structure of, 152-153, 152/, 153/ Cell membrane. See Plasma membrane Cell respiration aerobic, 104, 108-114 anaerobic, 105-106 energy released by, 95/ Cell-mediated destruction, 458 Cell-mediated immunity, 450 Central canal, 191 Central fatigue, 346

Central nervous system (CNS), 188-214. See also Brain; Spinal cord breathing regulation by, 499-500, 501/ components of, 152, 153t development of, 190-191, 191/ functions of, 190

and peripheral nervous system, relationship between, 154/ regeneration in, 157-158 structure of, 190 synapses in, 167 Central vein, 575, 576/ Centrioles, 51/ 74, 74/ Centromeres, 72, 72/, 74 Centrosomes, 74/ function of, 50t, 74 structure of, 50t Cephalic phase, 583-584, 584t Cerebellum, 206 in autonomic nervous system control, 236 damage to, 208, 352

functions of, 206 in skeletal muscle control, 352 structure of, 206 Cerebral cortex, 193-197 in breathing regulation, 500 gray matter in, 191-192 hemispheres of dominance in, 198 lateralization of, 197-199, 198/ in language, 199, 199/ lobes of, 193, 194t, 201, 202 in memory, 201, 202 motor areas of, 193, 194/, 195/ sensory areas of, 193, 194/, 195/ in sex drive, 201 structure of, 193, 194/ in vision, 276 Cerebral edema, altitude and, 515 Cerebral ischemia, 502 Cerebral peduncles, 206 Cerebrovascular accident, hypertension and, 437 Cerebrum, 192-203 in emotion, 200-201 in language, 199 in memory, 201-202 in motivation, 200-201 in sex drive, 201 structure of, 192, 193/ Cervical mucus, 655 Cervix, 654/, 655, 655/ CFTR. See Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator cGMP. See Cyclic guanosine monophosphate Chamber(s), of eye anterior, 262, 263 posterior, 263 Channels. See Ion channels; speci/ic types Chemical bonds. See Bond(s), chemical Chemical reactions. See Reactions, chemical Chemiosmotic theory of electron-transport system, 112, 112/ Chemokines, 447, 452 Chemoreceptors, 242, 243t in breathing regulation, 500-502, 502/ central, 500 peripheral, 500, 502 sensitivity of, to blood gas and pH levels, 503t Chemotaxis, 452, 457 Chenodeoxycholic acid, 579, 579/ Chicken fat, saturated fat content of, 34 Chief (zymogenic) cells, 566 Childhood, obesity in, 608 Chloride shift, 510-511, 511/

reverse, 511, 511/ Chlorine, ionic bonding with, 25-26, 26/ Cholecystokinin (CCK) and appetite, 607 as enterogastrone, 585 as hormone, 179 functions of, 583t, 585, 586-587 trophic effects of, 587 as neurotransmitter, 179, 180t structure of, 583 Cholera, 574 Cholesterol and atherosclerosis, 396 in bile, 576t, 579

in familial hypercholesteremia, 93t, 396 function of, 37 in gallstones, 580 in plasma membrane, 52 receptor-mediated endocytosis of, 54 structure of, 37/ transport of, 591 Cholesterolesterase, in pancreatic juice, 582t Cholic acid, 579, 579/ Cholinergic neurons, 175 Cholinergic sympathetic fibers, 421, 424 Cholinergic synaptic transmission, 228-229, 232, 233t

Cholinesterase inhibitors, for Alzheimer's disease, 175 Chondrocytes, 16 Chordae tendineae, 380, 380/ Chorea, 197, 352, 353t Chorion, 667 Chorion frondosum, 670 Chorionic gonadotropin, human. See Human chorionic gonadotropin Chorionic membranes, 670 Chorionic somatomammotropin, human. See Human chorionic somatomammotropin

Chorionic villus biopsy, 672 Choroid, 262t, 263 Choroid plexus, 205 Christmas disease, 376t Christmas factor, 375t Chromatids, 72, 72/ 75/ 647 Chromatin, 51/, 62, 63/ function of, 50t structure of, 50t Chromium, daily dietary intake of, 603t Chromosomes, 72/ 75/ autosomal, 76, 634 homologous, 75-78, 76/ 634, 635/ sex, 76, 634 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

(COPD), 492^93 Chronotropic effects, 408, 411 Chylomicrons, 590, 591 t Chyme, 564 Chymotrypsin, 588t in pancreatic juice, 582t, 588 Ciliary body, 262t, 263 Ciliary ganglion, 224 Ciliary muscle, and lens, 265, 266/ Cilium, 54-55, 55/ functions of, 50t, 54 location of, 55

in respiratory system, 483, 483/ structure of, 50t, 54-55 Cingulate gyrus, 200 Circadian rhythms, 304, 314 Circulation. See also Blood flow during exercise, 424-427 pulmonary, 379, 379/, 380t, 421/, 497^98 systemic, 379, 379/, 380t, 421/, 497 Circulatory shock, 437-439 cardiovascular reflexes and, 437, 438t signs of, 437, 438t Circulatory system, 364-400, 379/. See also Artery(ies); Heart; Vein(s) cells of, 79

circulatory shock in, 437-439 components of, 19t, 366-367 digestive system and, 366, 440, 592 distribution of blood in, 411, 412/ endocrine system and, 319, 440 functions of, 19t, 366 immune system and, 366, 440, 474 integumentary system and, 440 lymphatic system and, 400, 400/ membrane transport in, 145 metabolism in, 120 muscular system and, 359, 440 nervous system and, 237, 440 prostaglandins in, 318 protection by, 366 regulation by, 366 reproductive system and, 440, 680 respiratory system and, 366, 440, 516 sensory system and, 277 skeletal system and, 440 transportation by, 366 urinary system and, 440, 553 Circus rhythms, 398 Cirrhosis, 576 Cisterna chyli, 401 / Cisternae, 59, 67

terminal, 336 Citrate, 376t

Citric acid (Krebs) cycle, 109-110, 109/ 110/ CK (creatine phosphokinase). See Creatine kinase Cleavage, 667-669, 668/ Clinical Investigations, solutions to, 684—686 Clinical trials, in development of pharmaceutical drugs, 5-6 Clitoris, 655, 655/

development of, 637 Clonal anergy, 466 Clonal deletion, 466

Clonal selection theory, 464-466, 465/, 465t Clonidine, 232 Cloning, 668-669 reproductive, 668-669 therapeutic, 669 Clostridium botulinum, 328, 589 CNS. See Central nervous system Cocaine, 178, 421 combined with alcohol, 227 dopaminergic neurons and, 206 as local anesthetic, 162 sympathomimetic effects of, 227 synaptic effects of, 207t Cochlea, 251, 257-258, 257/ Cochlear duct, 257, 257/ Cochlear implants, 261

Coconut oil, saturated fat content of, 34 Codon(s), 65-66, 66t Coenzyme(s), 90

as hydrogen carriers, 96 Coenzyme A. See also Acetyl coenzyme A; HMG-Coenzyme A reductase in aerobic respiration, 109, 109/ Coenzyme Q, in electron-transport system, 110 Cofactors, and enzymes, 90, 90/ Cohen, Stanley, 7t Cold. See also Temperature paradoxical, 243 Colipase, 589 Collagen in blood clots, 375 in connective tissue, 14, 41, 41 / in extracellular matrix, 127 Collateral ganglia, 222-223, 224/ Collateral sympathetic ganglia, 224/ Collecting duct(s), 528, 536-538 cortical, 544

transport properties of, 537t Colliculus(i) inferior, 206 superior, 206, 274-275 Colloid, 309

Colloid osmotic pressure, 413 Colon. See also Large intestine ascending, 572 descending, 572 sigmoid, 572 transverse, 572 Color blindness, 272 Color vision, 268-269, 272 dichromatic, 272 trichromatic, 272 Colostrum, 466 Column(s), renal, 524 Columnar epithelium, 12, 12t, 13/ Combustion, energy released by, 95/ Commissural tracts, 348 Comparative physiology, 4 Compartments, body-fluid. See Body-fluid compartments Competence, immunological, 466 Competition, in carrier-mediated transport,

134—135, 135/ Complement proteins, 456-457

fixation of, 456, 457/ Complement system, 456-457 Complementary base pairing, 70/ Compliance of lungs, 485 of veins, 411 Compounds aromatic, 29 ionic, 25-27 Computed tomography (CT), 196t x-ray, 194

COMT. See Catechol-O-methyltransferase Concentration gradients, and diffusion, 128, 128/ rate of, 129-130 Condensation. See Dehydration synthesis Conducting zone, 481^83, 482/, 491 Conduction, of action potentials, 165-167 rates of, 166, 167, 167t saltatory, 166 without decrement, 166 Conduction aphasia, 199 Conduction deafness, 257, 260-261 Cones, 268, 269/ absorption maximum of, 272 and color vision, 272 distribution of, 272 types of, 272, 272/ Conformation, of enzymes, 86 Congestive heart failure, 439 Conjugated proteins, 40 Conjugation, 579 Connective tissue, 14—15 collagen in, 14, 41, 41 / dense fibrous, 14 dense irregular, 14, 16/ in epithelium, 13, 13/ loose, 14, 16 phagocytes in, 447 Connexins, in gap junctions, 168, 168/ Conn's syndrome, 547 Consciousness, reticular activating system in, 208

Constancy, dynamic, homeostasis as, 8, 8/ Contact dermatitis, 473 Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 552

Continuous capillaries, 392 Contraception breast-feeding and, 678 female, 291, 663-664 male, 652-654 Contraceptive pills, 663-664

side effects of, 291 Contractility definition of, 409, 411 extrinsic control of, 411 intrinsic control of, 409^11, 411/ and stroke volume, 409 Contraction(s) atrial, 382

of cardiac muscle, 354, 381-382, 386

intrinsic control of, 409-411 eccentric, 341 epinephrine and, 411/ isometric, 340-341 isotonic, 340-341 isovolumetric, 381 length-tension relationship in,

341-342, 342/ of skeletal muscles, 10, 340-342 graded, 340

mechanisms of, 330-339

regulation of, 335-338

sliding filament theory of, 331-335,

333/, 333t, 335/ visualization of, 340, 340/ of small intestine, 571-572 of smooth muscles, 355-356 strength of (See Contractility) uterine, 674 Control(s), in experiments, 4-5 Control centers cardiac, 208, 409, 431 respiratory, 206, 208, 208/, 499-500 temperature, 598 vasomotor, 431 Control group, 5 Control systems hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad, 304/ hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid, 304/ Convergence, 222

Convolutions, of cerebral cortex, 193 COPD. See Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Copper, daily dietary intake of, 603t Cor pulmonale, 493 Cori cycle, 108, 109/ Cornea, 262, 262t

Cornified (keratinized) membrane, 12, 12t Corona radiata, 657 Coronary arteries, 423, 424/ Coronary bypass surgery, 423, 424/ Corpora cavernosa, 650-651, 652/ Corpora quadrigemina, 206 Corpora spongiosum, 650-651, 652/ Corpus albicans, 658 Corpus callosum, function of, 192, 197 Corpus luteum, 315, 658, 661, 662/ Corpus striatum, 178, 197 Cortex, of brain, 191-192 Corti, organ of, 258-261, 259/ Cortical neurons, 276 complex, 276 hypercomplex, 276 simple, 276, 276/ Corticoids. See Corticosteroids Corticospinal (pyramidal) tract, 209, 210t anterior, 209, 210t, 211/ lateral, 209, 210t, 211/, 352 in skeletal muscle control, 352 ventral, 352

in voluntary movements, 211 Corticosteroids, 37 categories of, 306 for delayed hypersensitivity, 473 secretion of, 289, 304 disorders of, 307 Corticotropin. See Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 303. 303t, 676

Cortisol (hydrocortisone), 37, 37/ 306, 306/, 6101, 620 Cortisone, 462 Cotransport, 137, 138/ Coumarin, 376-377, 376t Countercurrent exchange, 535 Countercurrent multiplier system,

534-536, 535/ Countertransport, 137-138 Coupled reactions, 94-96, 95/ Cousteau, Jacques, 499

Covalent bonds, 25, 25/ single vs. double, in organic molecules, 29, 29f

CPK (creatine phosphokinase). See Creatine kinase Cranial nerves, 212, 212t as mixed nerves, 212 parasympathetic fibers in, 223 Craniosacral nervous system. See

Parasympathetic nervous system Creatine kinase, 344 diseases associated with abnormal concentrations of, 88t isoenzymatic forms of, 88, 344 myocardial ischemia and, 397 Creatine phosphate. See Phosphocreatine Creatine phosphokinase (CPK or CK). See

Creatine kinase Creatinine, 541

Creative ability, cerebral lateralization and,

198-199 Cremaster muscle, 637 Cremasteric reflex, 637 Crenation, of red blood cells, 133, 133/ Cretinism, 311, 311/

CRH. See Corticotropin-releasing hormone

Crib death, 503

Crick, Francis, 7t

Crista ampullaris, 253

Cross bridges, 333-335, 334/, 335/ Crossed-extensor reflex, 352, 353/ Crossing-over, by chromosomes, 78, 78/ Cryptorchidism, 637 CT. See Computed tomography Cuboidal epithelium, 12, 12t, 13/ Cumulus oophorus, 657 Cupula, 253, 254, 254/ Curare, action of, 172t, 174-175, 232 Cushing's syndrome, 307 Cutaneous sensation, 244-246. See also Skin entries conduction pathways for, 245-246 lateral inhibition in, 246, 247/ receptive fields in, 246 receptors for, 242, 244-246, 245/, 245t Cyanide and action potentials, 163 effects of poisoning with, 113 Cyanocobalamin. See Vitamin B12 Cyclase(s) in hormone action, 294-296, 295/, 295t in neurotransmission, 177, 177/ Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) adrenergic receptors and, 230 enzyme activation by, 90 in neurotransmission, 177, 177/ as second messenger in hormone action, 294-296, 295/, 295t Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and erection, 651, 653/ production of, 585

as second messenger in hormone action, 296 Cyclin(s), 71-72 Cyclin D, 71

Cyclin-dependent kinases, 71 Cyclohexane, 30/ Cyclooxygenase, 317

isoforms of, 318 Cyst(s), in polycystic kidney disease, 528 Cystallizable fragment, 455, 455/ Cysteine, 39/ 117t Cystic duct, 580 Cystic fibrosis, 129, 486 gene therapy for, 129 Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), 129, 486 Cytochrome(s), in electron-transport system, 110 Cytochrome a3, in electron-transport system, 110 Cytochrome P450 enzymes, 579 Cytokine(s), 71/, 459 vs. growth factors, 316 in hematopoiesis, 371

in immune system regulation, 448, 459, 459t Cytokinesis, 74 Cytoplasm, 51/ 56 function of, 50t structure of, 50t, 51, 56 Cytosine, 42, 42/, 43/, 62 Cytoskeleton, 56, 56/ Cytosol, 51, 51 /, 56 Cytotoxic T lymphocytes. See Killer T

lymphocytes Cytotrophoblast, 670

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