Living organisms require the constant expenditure of energy to maintain their complex structures and processes. Central to life processes are chemical reactions that are coupled, so that the energy released by one reaction is incorporated into the products of another reaction.

Bioenergetics refers to the flow of energy in living systems. Organisms maintain their highly ordered structure and life-sustaining activities through the constant expenditure of energy obtained ultimately from the environment. The energy flow in living systems obeys the first and second laws of a branch of physics known as thermodynamics.

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