Alpha and Gamma Motoneurons

In the spinal cord, two types of lower motor neurons innervate skeletal muscles. The motor neurons that innervate the extrafusal muscle fibers are called alpha motoneurons; those that innervate the intrafusal fibers are called gamma motoneurons (fig. 12.26). The alpha motoneurons are faster conducting (60 to 90 meters per second) than the thinner gamma motoneurons (10 to 40 meters per second). Since only the extrafusal muscle fibers are sufficiently strong and numerous to cause a muscle to shorten, only stimulation by the alpha motoneurons can cause muscle contraction that results in skeletal movements.

The intrafusal fibers of the muscle spindle are stimulated to contract by gamma motoneurons, which represent one-third of all efferent fibers in spinal nerves. However, because the in-trafusal fibers are too few in number and their contraction too weak to cause a muscle to shorten, stimulation by gamma mo-toneurons results only in isometric contraction of the spindles. Since myofibrils are present in the poles but absent in the central regions of intrafusal fibers, the more distensible central region

Rapid stretching of skeletal muscles produces very forceful muscle contractions as a result of the activation of primary and secondary endings in the muscle spindles and the monosynaptic stretch reflex. This can result in painful muscle spasms, as may occur, for example, when muscles are forcefully pulled in the process of setting broken bones. Painful muscle spasms may be avoided in physical exercise by stretching slowly and thereby stimulating mainly the secondary endings in the muscle spindles. A slower rate of stretch also allows time for the inhibitory Golgi tendon organ reflex to occur and promote muscle relaxation.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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