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The Logic of the Human Body Plan

Let us consider what parts of the human anatomy are there by necessity and dictated by broader physical and biological laws Finally, the innate logic of the human body plan can help us to hypothesize what might have happened to the development of intelligence if the K T boundary event had not occurred. The high demand on mental capability required for survival in the angiosperm rain forest may well have triggered the appearance of primate-like intelligent tree-dwelling dinosaurs. The anatomical appearance of human-like creatures eventually based on them might not have differed much from our body plan in general layout. Future computer

The Laboratory Guide to Human Physiology Concepts

And Clinical Applications, Tenth Edition, by Stuart I. Fox, is self-contained so students can prepare for laboratory exercises and quizzes without having to bring the textbook to the laboratory. The introduction to each exercise contains cross-references to the pages in this textbook where related information can be found. Similarly, those figures in the lab manual that correspond to full-color figures in the textbook are also cross-referenced. Both of these mechanisms help students better integrate the lecture and laboratory portions of their course. The manual provides laboratory exercises, classroom tested for a number of years, that reinforce many of the topics covered in this textbook and in the human physiology course.

Unique Text Features Promote Active Learning

Each chapter has a consistent organization to help students learn the concepts explained in the text and illustrated in the figures. The numerous pedagogical features can aid students in their quest to master new terminology, learn new concepts, analyze and understand physiological principles, and finally apply this knowledge in practical ways. The chapter organization, and the learning devices built into each chapter, facilitates this growth by providing mechanisms for active learning of the chapter contents. Because mastery of the content of a human physiology course requires such active learning, students are advised to make use of the learning aids in each chapter.

Online Learning Center

The Human Physiology Online Learning Center at www.mhhe.com fox8 is a comprehensive website created for instructors and students using the Fox textbook. For details about the student assets included on this site, please refer to the inside front cover of this book. The Online Learning Center allows instructors complete access to all student features, as well as exclusive access to a separate Instructor Center that houses downloadable and printable versions of traditional an-cillaries, plus additional instructor content. Contact your McGraw-Hill sales representative for your instructor user name and password. Fox Human Physiology, I Front Matter I Preface I I The McGraw-Hill

Introduction to Physiology

Human physiology is the study of how the human body functions, with emphasis on specific cause-and-effect mechanisms. Knowledge of these mechanisms has been obtained experimentally through applications of the scientific method. The physiology of invertebrates and of different vertebrate groups is studied in the science of comparative physiology. Much of the knowledge gained from comparative physiology has benefited the study of human physiology. This is because animals, including humans, are more alike than they are different. This is especially true when comparing humans with other mammals. The small differences in physiology between humans and other mammals can be of crucial importance in the development of pharmaceutical drugs (discussed later in this section), but these differences are relatively slight in the overall study of physiology.

The Membrane Potential

So, instead of being evenly distributed between the intracellular and extracellular compartments, K+ becomes more highly concentrated within the cell. The intracellular K+ concentration is 150 mEq L in the human body compared to an extracellular concentration of 5 mEq L (mEq milliequivalents, which is the millimolar concentration multiplied by the valence of the ion in this case, by one).

Negative Feedback Control of Calcium and Phosphate Balance

Low Plasma Ca2 Feedback

Although it is attractive to think that calcium balance is regulated by the effects of antagonistic hormones, the significance of calcitonin in human physiology remains unclear. Patients who have had their thyroid gland surgically removed (as for thyroid cancer) are not hypercalcemic, as one might expect them to be if calcitonin were needed to lower blood calcium levels. The ability of very large pharmacological doses of calci-tonin to inhibit osteoclast activity and bone resorption, however, is clinically useful in the treatment of Paget's disease, in which osteoclast activity causes softening of bone. It is sometimes also used to treat osteoporosis, as previously described.

Chapter Review Pages Summarize and Challenge

Comparative physiology is concerned with the physiology of animals other than humans and shares much information with human physiology. McGraw-Hill offers various tools and technology products to support the eighth edition of Human Physiology. Students can order supplemental study materials by contacting their campus bookstore. Instructors can obtain teaching aids by calling the McGraw-Hill Customer Service Department at 1-800-338-3987, visiting our A& P catalog at www.mhhe.com ap, or contacting your local McGraw-Hill sales representative.

Functions and Components of the Circulatory System

A unicellular organism can provide for its own maintenance and continuity by performing the wide variety of functions needed for life. By contrast, the complex human body is composed of specialized cells that demonstrate a division of labor. The specialized cells of a multicellular organism depend on one another for the very basics of their existence since most are firmly implanted in tissues, they must have their oxygen and nutrients brought to them, and their waste products removed. Therefore, a highly effective means of transporting materials within the body is needed.

Atoms Ions and Chemical Bonds

The study of physiology requires some familiarity with the basic concepts and terminology of chemistry. A knowledge of atomic and molecular structure,the nature of chemical bonds, and the nature of pH and associated concepts provides the foundation for much of human physiology.

Per Links Establish Connections

The term HPer Links is a hybrid of hyperlinks and the initials of Human Physiology. On the Internet, a hyperlink is a reference that you can click with a mouse to jump from one part of a document or web page to another. Students can use the cross-references offered on the Interactions pages in a similar way to find interrelated topics in the textbook. Fox Human Physiology, I Front Matter I Preface I I The McGraw-Hill

Pineal Gland

The role of the pineal gland in human physiology is poorly understood. It is known that the pineal, a gland located deep within the brain, secretes the hormone melatonin as a derivative of the amino acid tryptophan (fig. 20.11) and that production of this hormone is influenced by light-dark cycles.

Cilia and Flagella

Flagella And Cilia

Cilia are tiny hairlike structures that project from the surface of a cell and, like the coordinated action of rowers in a boat, stroke in unison. Cilia in the human body are found on the apical surface (the surface facing the lumen, or cavity) of stationary epithelial cells in the respiratory and female reproductive tracts. In the respiratory system, the cilia transport strands of mucus to the pharynx (throat), where the mucus can either be swallowed or expectorated. In the female reproductive tract, ciliary movements in the epithelial lining of the uterine tube draw the ovum (egg) into the tube and move it toward the uterus. Fox Human Physiology, I 3. Cell Structure and I Text I I The McGraw-Hill Sperm cells are the only cells in the human body that have flagella. The flagellum is a single whiplike structure that propels the sperm cell through its environment. Both cilia and flagella are composed of microtubules (thin cylinders formed from proteins) arranged in a characteristic way....

Goals and Orientation

The purpose of this book remains what it was in the first seven editions to present the fundamental principles and facts of human physiology in a format that is suitable for undergraduate students, regardless of academic backgrounds or fields of study liberal arts, biology, nursing, pharmacy, or other allied health professions. The book is also suitable for dental students, and many medical students have also used previous editions to lay the foundation for the more detailed coverage they receive in their courses. The most significant feature of this book is its clear, up-to-date, accurate explanations of mechanisms, rather than the mere description of facts and events. Because there are no limits to what can be covered in an introductory text, it is essential to reinforce over and over, through clear explanations, that physiology can be understood in terms of basic themes and principles. As evidenced by the very large number of flow diagrams employed, the book emphasizes...

Sir Edwin Ray Lankester

In 1911, a partial human skeleton was discovered near Piltdown in Sussex. Although the cranium was quite human in appearance, the lower jaw was more apelike. Many crude stone tools and bone fragments of extinct animals were also found in the same area. Lankester and many other scientists thought that this might be the skeleton of a species ancestral to modern humans. Sadly, the man who exposed spiritualists and Lamarkism had himself fallen for a hoax. Many years after its discovery, the Piltdown man skull was shown to be a composite of parts of a human cranium and a juvenile orangutan's jawbone that had been modified to look a bit more human. Lankester never knew of his mistake. He died in 1929, long before the hoax was unmasked.

New Technologies Promise to Expedite the Discovery of New Pharmaceuticals

TIt is difficult to summarize all the ways in which genomics and proteomics might affect the development of pharmaceutical agents, but a few examples illustrate the potential. Hypertension, congestive heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity are treated by pharmaceutical drugs that alter human physiology. Therapies are arrived at by identifying an enzyme or receptor involved in the process and discovering an inhibitor that interferes with its action. Proteomics will play an increasing role in identifying such potential drug targets. For example, the most potent vasoconstrictor known is the peptide hormone urotensin II. First discovered in fish spinal fluid, urotensin II is a small cyclic peptide, with 11 amino acid residues in humans and 12 or 13 in some other organisms. The vasoconstriction it induces can cause or exacerbate hypertension, congestive heart failure, and coronary artery disease. Some of the methods described in Section 9.3 for elucidating

Other Materials Available from McGraw Hill

The Dynamic Human CD-ROM (0697-38935-9) illustrates the important relationships between anatomical structures and their functions in the human body. Realistic computer visualization and three-dimensional visualizations are the premier features of this CD-ROM. Various figures throughout this text are correlated to modules of The Dynamic Human. See pages xxvi-xxvii for a detailed listing of figures. Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition 17. Study Cards for Anatomy and Physiology (007290818-1) by Van De Graaff, et al., is a boxed set of 300 3-by-5 inch cards. It serves as a well-organized and illustrated synopsis of the structure and function of the human body. The Study Cards offer a quick and effective way for students to review human anatomy and physiology. 21. Case Histories in Human Physiology, third edition, by Donna Van Wynesberghe and Gregory Cooley is a web-based workbook that stimulates analytical thinking through case studies and problem...

Androids and Miniaturization

The important issue here is that when constructing an android on the basis of the human body plan we would not create the phenomenon of self-consciousness. That self-consciousness exists is due to the laws of nature. These laws cannot be created they can only be found. Once we know the building plan of a self-conscious brain, we will have found the law of nature governing self-consciousness. For example, when a certain combination of neural components is present and the neurons are connected in the right way, then self-consciousness arises. This law has existed since the formation of the universe. Self-conscious intelligence is therefore a possibility, which nature has eventually expressed in humans on the basis of organic components. In constructing androids, we would merely set the conditions such that this long-existing possibility is now expressed on the basis of inorganic components. We have to accept that since the beginning of time the laws of nature have presumably had a large...

Types of Endocrine Disorders

Defects And Hormone

Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

Autonomic Nervous System

Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

Control Systems Involving the Hypothalamus and Pituitary

Hypothalamus And Pituitary Gland

Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

Organization of the Respiratory System

Functions The Respiratory System

Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

Structure of a Long Bone

The Human Body Health And Disease

The pelvis. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 19-4. The pelvis. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 19-5. Structure of a long bone. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Lower Respiratory Passageways and Lungs

Horizontal Cross Section The Lungs

Respiratory system. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 11-1. Respiratory system. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 11-2. The larnyx, anterior view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 11-3. The vocal cords viewed from above. (A) The glottis in closed position. (B) The glottis in open position. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Human Relevance of Viruses

Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus

The virus associated with AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), a usually fatal disease, is caused by a retrovirus (a virus with two identical single nuclear strands) that is related to those that cause cancer. It was detected in a blood sample collected in 1959 from Zaire. AIDS was not adequately described, however, until 1981, and the virus itself was not identified until 1983. Research has shown that two forms of the AIDS virus, HIV-1 and HIV-2, diverged from a common ancestor in the early 1950s (Fig. 17.19). Thirty years later, the AIDS virus had spread all over the world. Retroviruses mutate so rapidly that they are capable of evolving about a million times faster than cellular organisms. Since the initial appearance of AIDS, increasing research is being applied to the development of a vaccine with the use of a genetically engineered virus. If successful, the vaccine will cause the human body to develop a defense against AIDS viruses without the disease itself developing....

Divisions of the Skeleton

Medical Terms Skeleton

The axial skeleton is shown in yellow the appendicular skeleton is shown in blue. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 19-2. The skull from the left. An additional cranial bone, the ethmoid, is visible mainly from the interior of the skull. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

The External Genital Organs

External Female Genitalia

The external female genitalia. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 15-2. The external female genitalia. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

The Oviducts Uterus and Vagina

Sagittal Section

Female reproductive system, as seen in sagittal section. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 15-1. Female reproductive system, as seen in sagittal section. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Ear Medical Terminology

Temporal Bone Fracture Ear

The ear, showing the outer, middle, and inner subdivisions. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 18-1. The ear, showing the outer, middle, and inner subdivisions. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

The Resting Membrane Potential

Resting Membrane Potential

Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

Functional Subsystems of the Nervous System

46.7 The Body Is Represented in the Primary Motor Cortex and the Primary Somatosensory Cortex Cross sections through the primary motor and primary somatosensory cortexes can be represented as maps of the human body. Body parts are shown in proportion to the brain area devoted to them.

Other Endocrine Tissues

Memmlers The Heart And Heart Disease

Microscopic view of pancreatic cells. Light staining islet cells are seen among the cell clusters that produce digestive juices. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 16-5. Microscopic view of pancreatic cells. Light staining islet cells are seen among the cell clusters that produce digestive juices. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Abbreviations Used For The Gastrointestinal Systems

Label Digestion Diagram

Digestive system. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 12-1. Digestive system. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

An Overview of Blood Pressure Regulation Associated with the Kidney

Goldblatt Kidney Model

As noted above, all mechanisms closely relate with the RAS. With these under consideration, we would like to view the JGA as the center of regulation of blood pressure in the kidney and or the human body (illustrated in figure 2). Renin is secreted from the JGA via the macula densa. As physical stimulants, both pressure and flow mediate renin synthesis and secretion 5 . As chemical factors, inorganic and organic compounds stimulate renin synthesis and secretion. For example, Cl ion (inorganic stimulants) is shown to be a mediator of renin secretion. Moreover, as a biophysical stimulant, the role of renal sympathetic nervous stimulation might be important for regulation of renin secretion. Fig. 2. View of the juxtaglomerular apparatus as the center of regulation of blood pressure in the kidney and or the human body. Fig. 2. View of the juxtaglomerular apparatus as the center of regulation of blood pressure in the kidney and or the human body.

Ventricular Pre Excitation

Katila et al. (1987) were among the first to develop a current multipole model with dipole and quadripole terms to localize the sources of bioelectrical activity in the human heart in the context of WPW syndrome. The same group continued this approach in a clinical setting, and combined magnetic mapping with 3D anatomical models reconstructed from MR imaging (Makijarvi et al., 1992). These authors were able to show that noninvasive MCG mapping could significantly contribute to the invasive catheter mapping for optimal pre-procedure localization of the pre-excitation site and AV accessory pathways in WPW syndrome. They tested different source models for optimal localization compared to invasive electrophy-siological study or intraoperative mapping in a group of 15 WPW patients, with the best results (2-4 cm) being obtained using the magnetic dipole model. The same group further characterized different magnetocardiographic QRS and delta wave morphologies and corresponding map patterns...

The Search for Ancestors and Origins

By the seventeenth century c.E., anatomy had become a popular field of study. Comparisons soon established how like human anatomy that of the higher primates was. By the mid-eighteenth century, Carolus Linnaeus, the originator of modern biological classification, even ventured to place man and the apes within the same family. Yet this classification did not imply any necessary common ancestry. Linneaus and others of his time created the notion that individual species arose through a special, divine plan. The idea of special creation lost credibility when the fact of extinction became established at the end of the eighteenth

Principal Terms

One common approach to the study of anatomy is from the viewpoint of a classification system that is based on the type of organisms studied, generally plant anatomy and animal anatomy. Animal anatomy can be further subdivided into human anatomy and comparative anatomy. Other anatomy subdivisions are developmental, pathological, and surgical anatomy and anatomical art. An example of developmental is the study of embryos, and an example of pathological is the study of diseased organs. Examples of applied anatomy are surgical anatomy and anatomical art. Anatomy encompasses the following systems musculoskeletal, nervous, circulatory, immune, respiratory, digestive and excretory, endocrine, reproductive, and integumentary. These systems differ widely among animals, but most animals need to fulfill the functions of these anatomical structures in one way or another. For simplicity's sake, anatomy of warm-blooded vertebrate creatures will be discussed here.

Correlations

3-2 Human Body Anatomy Cell Size 3-4 Human Body Anatomy Cell Components 3-12 Human Body Anatomy Cell Components 3-13 Human Body Anatomy Cell Components 3-14 Human Body Anatomy Cell Components 3-16 Human Body Anatomy Cell Components Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body

Figure

Electron Micrograph Golgi Apparatus

Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Two classes of cells, eukaryotic cells and prokary-otic cells, can be distinguished by their structure. The cells of the human body, as well as those of other mul-ticellular animals and plants, are eukaryotic (true-nucleus) cells. These cells contain a nuclear membrane surrounding the cell nucleus and numerous other membrane-bound structures. Prokaryotic cells, for example, bacteria, lack these membranous structures. This chapter describes the structure of eukaryotic cells only. Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

The Urinary System

The Human Body Health And Disease

Male urinary system, with blood vessels. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 13-1. Male urinary system, with blood vessels. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Figure 125

Withdrawal Reflex Diagram

Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

Animal Cell Parts

Animal Cell Medical Terminology

Diagram of a typical animal cell showing the main organelles. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 4-1. Diagram of a typical animal cell showing the main organelles. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 4-2. Human chromosomes. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 4-2. Human chromosomes. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 4-3. The stages in cell division (mitosis). (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and...

Muscle Structure

Biceps Brachii Muscle Origin Diagram

Diagram of a muscle showing three attachments to bones two origins and one insertion (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 20-3. Superficial muscles, anterior view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 20-3. Superficial muscles, anterior view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 20-4. Superficial muscles, posterior view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 20-4. Superficial muscles, posterior view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL....

Positions

Anatomical Term For Buttock

Quadrants of the abdomen, showing the organs within each quadrant. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 5-5. Quadrants of the abdomen, showing the organs within each quadrant. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Cadavers

Cadavers have been used for centuries to teach human anatomy. In laparoscopic training as well, cadavers offer a high degree of fidelity to the living patient and a nonpressured learning atmosphere.4 Creation of a pneumoperitoneum is simple and performed exactly as in the operating room. The gas is well maintained, is not absorbed, and does not leak, which leads to a significant reduction in gas utilization.3 Cadavers do not bleed and hence allow a clear and bloodless vision of the surgical field.

Anticlotting Drugs

Anti Hypertension Treatment Physiology

Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body

Replication of DNA

Separated Polynucleotide Strands

Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition In order to form the approximately 40 trillion cells of the adult human body, a minimum of 40 trillion individual cell divisions must occur. Thus, the DNA in the original fertilized egg must be replicated at least 40 trillion times. Actually, many more than 40 trillion divisions occur during the growth of a fertilized egg into an adult human being since many cells die during development and are replaced by the division of existing cells.

Cell Division

Cell Cycle With Time Elapsed

Starting with a single fertilized egg, the first cell division produces 2 cells. When these daughter cells divide, they each produce 2 cells, giving a total of 4. These 4 cells produce a total of 8, and so on. Thus, starting from a single cell, 3 division cycles will produce 8 cells (23), 10 division cycles will produce 210 1024 cells, and 20 division cycles will produce 220 1,048,576 cells. If the development of the human body involved only cell division and growth without any Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

Fetal Circulation

Fetal Circulation Model Aortic Arch

Fetal circulation and placenta. Color shows relative oxygen content of blood. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 15-7. Fetal circulation and placenta. Color shows relative oxygen content of blood. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Naming of Muscles

Sole Foot Neuromuscular Junction

Neuromuscular junction. (A) The branched end of a motor neuron makes contact with the membrane of a muscle fiber (cell). (B) Enlarged view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 20-1. Neuromuscular junction. (A) The branched end of a motor neuron makes contact with the membrane of a muscle fiber (cell). (B) Enlarged view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

The Heart

Figure The Heart And Great Vessels

The cardiovascular system. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 9-1. The cardiovascular system. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 9-2. The heart and great vessels. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 9-2. The heart and great vessels. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Key Terms

Eyelid Medical Terminology

FIGURE 6-5. (A) Normal. (B) Hiatal hernia. The stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity, raising the level of the junction between the esophagus and the stomach. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 6-5. (A) Normal. (B) Hiatal hernia. The stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity, raising the level of the junction between the esophagus and the stomach. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

The Lymphatic System

Art Dorsalis Pedis

Principal systemic arteries. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 9-5. Principal systemic arteries. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 9-6. Principal systemic veins. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 9-6. Principal systemic veins. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

The Nephrons

Nephrons Diagram

Longitudinal section through the kidney showing its internal structure, and an enlarged diagram of a nephron. There are more than 1 million nephrons in each kidney. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 13-2. Longitudinal section through the kidney showing its internal structure, and an enlarged diagram of a nephron. There are more than 1 million nephrons in each kidney. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 13-3. A nephron and its blood supply. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 13-3. A nephron and its blood supply. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human...

The Vascular System

Figure The Heart Conduction System

Conduction system of the heart. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 9-3. Conduction system of the heart. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

The Eye and Vision

Lacrimal Apparatus

The eye. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 18-5. The eye. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 18-6. Lacrimal apparatus. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Anatomy of the Skin

Medical Terminology Human Hair

Cross-section of the skin. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.) FIGURE 21-1. Cross-section of the skin. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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