The membranous labyrinth of the internal ear has two sac-like parts--the sacculus and the utriculus. On the wall of each of these sacs is a collection of hair cells known as the macula (plural: maculae). The hairs of these hair cells move in response to gravitational forces, both static and linear kinetic. The maculae are particularly sensitive to small changes in the orientation of the head from an upright position. Thus, the maculae are very important in maintaining a standing or upright position.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.