REQUIREMENT. The following exercises are to be answered by completing the incomplete statements. After you have completed all the exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises" at the end of the lesson, and check your answers.
1. The skeleton_s (holds up) the body.
Joints and attached skeletal muscles enable the parts of the body to move with respect to each other; this is called_n. Such linkages in the lower members make
The skeleton helps to p_t vital organs.
The skeleton is involved in the formation of_d (h_s) cells.
2. Each bone is built upon a framework of_. Upon this framework,_e crystals are deposited in regular order. When compressed, these crystals produce a local_c c_t. This phenomenon is called the electric effect. Bones tend to lose mass when they are not subjected to at least ordinary_s.
3. The living cells of the bones are osteo_. When these cells are building up bone tissue, they are called osteo_. When they are tearing down bone tissue, they are called osteo_. The building and rebuilding respond directly to the directions of
_applied to the body.
4. The envelope surrounding the "typical" long bone is the p_m. Adjacent to the surface of the bone, there is a special layer of bone-forming cells called the osteo c layer. When a long bone is fractured without loss of the periosteum, the fracture is healed by the combined action of the_c layer of the periosteum and the osteo_s of the bone itself.
5. In the early years of life, near each end of the long bones, there is a plate of cartilage called the epi_plate. Between puberty and adulthood, this cartilage is replaced by_development. The dense bony line remaining is called the
Meanwhile, the bone also grows in w_h. As bony tissue is added to the outside of the bone by the_c layer, o_c activity removes bone material from the wall of the marrow cavity.
6. When the growth of the cranial flat bones is complete, the osteogenic layer of the
_m disappears. Osteoblastic activity repairs only the margins of a spatial defect. Thus, the missing portions of the tables (will) (will not) be replaced.
7. a. In a young individual, if the brain is injured by a force applied to the cranium, where will the injury usually be located?_.
b. In an older adult, the injury will usually be located_
_or it may be diverted to the_
8. Enclosing the joint area of a "typical" synovial joint is the joint_.
Lubricating the joint is the_fluid. Holding the bones together at the joint are the_ts and skeletal_s. Producing motion when properly stimulated are the skeletal_s.
9. The upper part of the vertebral column, the neck region, and associated muscles provide the head with its various_s. The upper two vertebrae are specifically constructed for motions of the_.
10. The vertebral bodies, the intervertebral discs, and the articular processes of the vertebrae serve to s_t the body w_t. The sacrum receives the b_
w_from above and transfers it to the pelvic bones.
11. A semiflexible rod is formed by the_e, the inter-vertebral_s, and the associated_ts. The spinous and transverse processes of the neural arches serve as_ts for skeletal muscles and act as_s.
The intervertebral discs allow motion to occur between adjacent_e.
Second, they act as_k_s.
The curvatures of the vertebral column also function as_k_s for the body.
12. The construction of the upper member serves to place the grasping_into as many_s as possible. This is particularly helpful in ing_ and placing it into the_.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.