a. Respiration. In general, respiration is the exchange of gases. In the human body, two kinds of respiration take place.

(1) External respiration. In external respiration, gases are exchanged between the blood and the surrounding air.

(2) Internal respiration. In internal respiration, gases are exchanged between the blood and the individual cells of the body.

b. Breathing. On the other hand, breathing is the process by which air is moved into and out of the lungs.

(1) Types. In humans, there are two types of breathing. In costal breathing, the rib cage is used. In diaphragmatic breathing, there is reciprocal interaction between the diaphragm and the abdominal wall.

(2) Direction of air flow. When the air flows inward, we call it inhalation (inspiration). When the air flows outward, we call it exhalation (expiration).

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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